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Hale Edwards > 7th Grade Social Studies Standards
Follow this link to the South Carolina State Department of Education Social Studies Standards.

http://ed.sc.gov/agency/pr/standards-and-curriculum/documents/FINALAPPROVEDSSStandardsAugust182011.pdf

  

 

STANDARDS AND INDICATORS

7TH GRADE SOCIAL STUDIES

 

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-1.1

Standard 7-1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the growth and impact of

global trade on world civilizations after 1600.

Enduring Understanding:

European expansion during the 1600s and 1700s was often driven by economic and

technological forces. To understand the influence of these forces, the student will …

7-1.1 Compare the colonial claims and the expansion of European powers through 1770.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/Conceptual Knowledge – 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

In 3rd Grade, the students learned about the initial contact between the Native Americans and

European settlers in South Carolina (3-2.3). In 4th grade, students learned about the exploration

of the New World by Europeans and their accomplishments as well as their settlements (4-1.3, 4-

1.4, and 4-2.2).

In World History in high school, the students will learn about the changing boundaries and

empires in Asia, the Americas, and Africa as a result of European exploration and expansions

(MWH-2.1, MWH-2.2, MWH-4.1, and MWH-4.2).

It is essential for students to know:

Students should be able to identify the major European nations involved in international

expansion, mainly Spain, Portugal, England, France, and the Netherlands, and the areas or

regions in which each expanded during the 1600s and 1700s. They should be able to locate on

maps the colonial claims of these nations, mainly in the Americas, as well as the overseas

exploration to Asia and Africa. Students should be able to compare the colonial claims of the

European powers and explain why Spain was able to gain more land in the Americas. Students

should be able to utilize maps to identify the key exploration, trade, and settlement routes of the

European powers.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the later settlements or expansion associated with imperialism of

the 1800s and 1900s. Although Standard 7-1 calls for an emphasis on the 1600s and 1700s that

should not discourage students from identifying European expansion from as early as the late

1400s and through the 1500s as this is when this colonial expansion began.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Select or design appropriate forms of social studies resources to organize and evaluate

social studies information.

Identify the location of places, the conditions at places, and the connections between

places.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-1.1

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

Exemplify

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-1.2

Standard 7-1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the growth and impact of

global trade on world civilizations after 1600.

Enduring Understanding:

European expansion during the 1600s and 1700s was often driven by economic and

technological forces. To understand the influence of these forces, the student will …

7-1.2 Explain how technological and scientific advances contributed to the power of European

nations.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge – 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

In the 4th grade, students learned about technological factors that led to the exploration of the

New World (4-1.3).

This will be the last time students will learn specifically about the technological and scientific

advances that helped European powers in the 1600s and 1700s.

It is essential for students to know:

Much of the political, military, and economic domination of the European nations during the

1600s and 1700s was due to the scientific and technological innovations of these nations.

Students should recognize that improved mapmaking and navigational advances such as the

caravel, compass, and the astrolabe improved the Europeans’ ability to navigate the open waters,

thereby allowing them to dominate travel, trade, and naval operations among the continents.

Students should also recognize that the European use of gunpowder in building superior

weaponry such as rifles and cannons empowered them to conquer peoples in foreign lands

without having superior numbers (in those lands). It is critical for students to comprehend that as

Europeans expanded their reach through these advantages, it allowed them to spread European

political systems and ideas, economic models, and cultural beliefs, which will lead to the

students’ understanding of subsequent indicators 7-1.3, 7-1.4, and 7-1.5.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the specific nations involved in the development of these

advances.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Identify and explain cause-and-effect relationships.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-1.2

Exemplify

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-1.3

Standard 7-1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the growth and impact of

global trade on world civilizations after 1600.

Enduring Understanding:

European expansion during the 1600s and 1700s was often driven by economic and

technological forces. To understand the influence of these forces, the student will …

7-1.3 Summarize the policy of mercantilism as a way of building a nation’s wealth, including

government policies to control trade.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge – 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

This is the first time students will learn about the policy of mercantilism, but in 4th grade students

learned about economic factors that led to European exploration of the New World (4-1.3).

In 8th Grade, the students will learn about mercantilism in the context of South Carolina history

(8-1.5). In World History in high school, the students will learn more about the trade policy of

mercantilism (MWH-4.6).

It is essential for students to know:

Economic changes began taking place in Europe during the 1600s and 1700s as Europe began

colonial expansion and global trade. With the growth of international trade that resulted from

improved navigational techniques, the “discovery” and colonization of the New World, and a

growing merchant class, the economy became more complex and moved beyond the simple

feudal system based on land ownership. In response to these changes, European nations began to

develop the system of mercantilism. Under mercantilism, governments sought to control and

regulate trade so as to create a favorable balance of trade – i.e. the value of their exports would

be greater than the value of their imports. By establishing a favorable trade balance, nations

could then build their supplies of gold and silver and thereby build wealth for the mother

countries in Europe. Colonies were a critical component of mercantilist practice because they

provided inexpensive raw materials and resources for European nations, and colonies also

provided a market for finished products made in Europe. The European nations controlled this

trade generally by requiring that their colonies only trade with their mother countries and by

placing tariffs on goods imported from other nations.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the specific trade pattern, raw materials, or products involved,

although students should have a general idea of these patterns and markets.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Identify and explain the relationships among multiple causes and multiple effects.

Explain why trade occurs and how historical patterns of trade have contributed to global

interdependence.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-1.3

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

Exemplify

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-1.4

Standard 7-1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the growth and impact of

global trade on world civilizations after 1600.

Enduring Understanding:

European expansion during the 1600s and 1700s was often driven by economic and

technological forces. To understand the influence of these forces, the student will …

7-1.4 Analyze the beginnings of capitalism and the ways that it was affected by mercantilism,

the developing market economy, international trade, and the rise of the middle class.

Taxonomy Level: Analyze/ Conceptual Knowledge – 4/B

Previous/future knowledge:

This is the first time students will learn about the policy of capitalism, but in 4th grade students

learned about economic factors that led to exploration and the expansion of international trade

(4-1.3).

In World History in high school, the students will learn about the world market economy in

terms of industrialization and will compare capitalism with other economic ideologies (MWH-

5.4 and MWH-5.5). In United States History and the Constitution in high school, students will

evaluate the role of capitalism and its impact on democracy (USHC-4.3)

It is essential for students to know:

Capitalism is an economic system based upon the private ownership of resources and production

that is driven to make a profit. During the 17th and 18th centuries, changing economic activities

began to alter the economic structure of Europe and lent itself to the establishment of capitalism.

With the growth of international trade that resulted from improved navigational techniques, the

“discovery” and colonization of the New World, and a growing merchant class, the economy

became more complex and moved beyond the simple feudal system based on land ownership.

Mercantilism became the major economic model for European nations as the students learned

about in indicator 7-1.3; but while the governments sought to regulate trade and foster national

wealth, the instrument through which trade operated was private ownership. Merchants and ship

owners took the risks and enjoyed the profits of the growing international trade. These merchants

and businessmen formed the backbone of a growing middle class in the towns and cities of

Europe and contributed to a growing market within Europe. With new wealth, this middle class

contributed to the emerging market economy in Europe as individual citizens started private

businesses. A market economy is a system in which individual buyers and sellers interact in the

marketplace to exchange goods and services. The development of these factors – mercantilism,

international trade, rise of the middle class, and the developing market economy – was critical in

the creation and advancement of capitalism.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the specific trade patterns, businesses, or jobs involved, although

students should have a general idea of these patterns and businesses.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-1.4

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Identify and explain the relationships among multiple causes and multiple effects.

Explain why trade occurs and how historical patterns of trade have contributed to global

interdependence.

Select or design appropriate forms of social studies resources* to organize and evaluate

social studies information.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Analyze

Differentiate

Organize

Attribute

Or any verb from the Understand, Apply or Remember cognitive process dimensions.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-1.5

Standard 7-1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the growth and impact of

global trade on world civilizations after 1600.

Enduring Understanding:

European expansion during the 1600s and 1700s was often driven by economic and

technological forces. To understand the influence of these forces, the student will …

7-1.5 Compare the differing ways that European nations developed political and economic

influences, including trade and settlement patterns, on the continents of Asia, Africa, and the

Americas.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/Conceptual Knowledge – 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

In 4th grade students learned about the political and economic factors that led to exploration of

the New World (4-1.3).

In World History in high school, the students will learn about the impact of the competition

among European countries on the various kingdoms of the Americas and Africa, the changing

boundaries in Europe and Asia, the changes in European overseas empires, the disruption within

West African kingdoms as a result of the competition between European countries over slave

trade, and about Asia’s relationship with European states through 1800 (MWH-2.6, MWH-4.1,

MWH-4.2, MWH-4.7, and MWH-5.6). In United States History and the Constitution in high

school, students will learn about the political, social, and economic development of British North

America (USHC-1.1).

It is essential for students to know:

Due to economic forces that drove the European powers and technological forces that enabled

them, European expansion developed political and economic influences in Asia, the Americas,

and Africa. Students should be able to recognize similarities and differences of this European

influence across the regions.

In Asia, interaction was prompted primarily through trade and the beginnings of global European

colonization and expansion. As a region, Asia was distinctly different than the New World and

Africa in that it possessed highly advanced, prosperous, relatively modern, and militarily strong

civilizations. Because of these characteristics, European dealings with Asia were, more or less,

based on an association of “equals”. This equality prompted Europe and Asia to largely engage

in mutually beneficial trade relationships. To facilitate this relationship, European nations were

allowed to establish a trade “presence” in Asia which was largely based on building trading posts

in port cities and along the coastal regions. This trade led to a change in Asian economies which

became more dependent on European trade and markets. Among other things this trade created a

more prosperous merchant class in Asian societies that was closely aligned with Europeans.

During most of the 1600s and 1700s there was no significant European colonization in Asia

comparable to that which existed in the New World. Students should understand that while

Europe did not initially engage in the colonization methods utilized in the New World, it still had

a profound impact on the society and culture of Asia. For centuries Asian civilizations had

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-1.5

largely developed in isolation from one another and from the European world. With the opening

and eventual expansion of trade relationships this tradition of isolation began to break down and

the introduction of European ideas transpired, especially the introduction of Christianity as

missionaries began travelling with the European merchants. Because of this influence of

Christianity, the many Asian governments limited or closed off trade with the Europeans in a

return to isolationism in order to protect their cultures.

In the Americas, the motivation for expansion was again economically driven, yet political

influences also occurred. In the Americas, unlike in Asia and in Africa, colonization did take

place. There were differing colonial structures and settlement patterns among the European

colonies established in the Americas. Students should recognize there were various European

nations that explored and settled in the New World. Among these nations were Spain, Portugal,

England, France, and the Netherlands. In the Spanish and Portuguese colonies where gold and

silver were discovered, trade became the primary basis of interaction with the area. Both of these

nations also quickly developed plantation systems that depended on native labor, which was later

replaced by imported slave labor from Africa. The slavery of Native Americans, as well as the

slavery of Africans later, created an economic, political, and social system where Native

Americans and Africans were excluded and often mistreated through harsh punishments and

working conditions on the plantations. The plantations evolved in the Caribbean and Amazon

basin where sugar cane could be grown and sold as a valuable cash crop, and the French and the

Dutch also developed plantations in the Caribbean. The plantation system was also advanced in

the southern English colonies where crops such as tobacco, rice, indigo and some sugar were

grown as plantation crops. France, England, and the Netherlands did not enslave Native

Americans, but they did import slave labor from Africa. The British, and the French to a lesser

degree, also relied on indentured servants to help with the labor supply needed for the growing

plantation system. These indentured servants worked to pay off debts or the costs of traveling to

the Americas. For example, a group of indentured servants in the British colonies were known

as “redemptioners” who would negotiate their indenture, or terms of work,

to pay for their costs to travel and live, upon arriving in the Americas. Another large group of

indentured servants, about 25%, was made up of people convicted of some type of crime that

were sent to the Americas to pay their debt to society. The state of Georgia was established

based on this idea. After the American Revolution, the British continued this practice by sending

convicts to their colony of Australia.

Other types of settlements focused on trade developed in the French and Dutch colonies where

gold and silver were not prevalent and plantation farming was not beneficial. The Dutch led the

way with early colonization and trading posts in South America. Dutch colonization was not

very successful however, except in their colony of Suriname. French established trading posts

with Native Americans in North America. Fur trade was very prosperous and it allowed the

French to establish generally good relations with the Indians. As a result of their good relations

and to try to prevent the British from taking their land, a majority of the Indians fought alongside

the French in the French and Indian War. The British wanted to take over the fur trade from the

French and the British colonies wanted to take over French land in the Americas. As a result of

the war, the British gained much of France’s land, and France’s power and influence in the

Americas began to decline.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-1.5

In all of these settlements in the Americas, the Europeans made their political presence felt as

they took control of these lands and instituted new forms of government. These political styles

varied as the Spanish and Portuguese ruled their colonies with strong, central monarchy that kept

a close watch on its colonies by appointing viceroys or royal representatives to monitor the

colonies. The French and Dutch were not as strict in their control, ruling more loosely which

allowed for more political decision-making amongst the colonists. The English allowed a

representative government system similar to what the mother country had which allowed

colonists to elect representatives to participate in decision making.

The last type of settlement in the Americas was the development of what could be considered

true colonial settlements. These colonies were created by transporting large numbers of people to

live in an area. The first of these colonies was developed by the English at Jamestown. It was

established as a trading settlement, but of necessity, soon developed into a permanent colonial

settlement. Soon after Jamestown began to flourish and the Pilgrims came to America to

establish a colony based on religious freedom. The intent of the Puritans, from the beginning,

was to make the settlements they founded into colonies of permanent habitation. The Spanish

and Portuguese likewise spread Christianity amongst their settlements, but spread Catholicism

rather than Protestantism. Religion, however, was not the emphasis or purpose of Spanish or

Portuguese settlement.

In Africa, economic and political influence was based on the slave trade which began as a result

of the need for more labor on the plantations in the Americas. To acquire the slaves, the

Europeans engaged in trade with African tribes, often exchanging goods the African tribal

leaders wanted such as weapons, iron, cloth, and horses in return for the slaves. As the demand

for slaves increased, tribal warfare in Africa increased as tribes began capturing other tribes in

order to participate in this trade. Some tribes became very powerful through this process while

most African societies suffered from the loss of workers being taken and traded to the

Europeans. Families and communities were separated, and the major population decrease and

loss of workers led to economic problems in Africa. Some Africans began resistance movements

to try to stop the European slave trade, either by attacking European slave traders in Africa or by

revolting on the slave ships. Like in Asia, there was no significant colonization or political

takeover like there was in the Americas.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the names of the explorers, traders, or leaders of Europe, Asia, the

Americas, or Africa during this era. While students should be able to recognize the general trade

patterns and the establishment of a European presence in Asia, the Americas, and Africa, it is not

essential that they be able to identify all the cities and locations engaged in trade. Students also

do not need to know the years of settlement in the Americas nor the names of specific groups

conquered. They also do not need to know the names of the African nations that participated in

the slave trade, the number of estimated people taken from various tribes, which part of Africa

slaves came from, or the numbers of slaves who went to various regions in the New World.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-1.5

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Identify and explain the relationships among multiple causes and multiple effects.

Explain why trade occurs and how historical patterns of trade have contributed to global

interdependence.

Select or design appropriate forms of social studies resources* to organize and evaluate

social studies information.

Identify the location of places, the conditions at places, and the connections between

places.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

Exemplify

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-2.1

Standard 7-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of limited

government and unlimited government as they functioned in Europe in the seventeenth and

eighteenth centuries.

Enduring Understanding:

The relationship between citizens and their government is a fundamental component of political

rule. To understand the role of constitutions, the characteristics of shared powers, the protection

of individual rights, and the promotion of the common good by government, the student will …

7-2.1 Analyze the characteristics of limited government and unlimited government that evolved

in Europe in the 1600s and 1700s.

Taxonomy Level: Analyze/ Conceptual Knowledge - 4/B

Previous/future knowledge:

In 1st Grade, the students learned about the fundamental principles of democracy (1-3.1). In 2nd

grade, the students learned about the basic functions of government (2-2.1). In 3rd grade, the

students learned about the structure of state government (3-3.5).

In World History in high school, the students will learn about democracy and constitutionalism

(MWH-5.2). In United States History and the Constitution in high school, students will learn

about the early development of representative government and how the idea of limited

government is protected by the Constitution and Bill of Rights (USHC-1.1 and USHC-1.5). In

United States government in high school, students will learn about the role and relationship of

the citizen to government in democratic, republican, authoritarian, and totalitarian systems and

about limited and unlimited governments with regard to governance (USG-1.3 and USG-1.5).

It is essential for students to know:

There are fundamental differences between a limited and unlimited government. In a limited

government there are restraints placed upon the power and authority of government, whereas in

an unlimited government there is virtually no ability to limit the actions of the government

thereby reducing the ability to prevent it from being authoritarian or tyrannical in nature. In an

unlimited government, individual rights and freedoms are curbed and citizens are expected to

display total obedience to the government as the ruler or rulers make all decisions; but in a

limited government citizens are given individual rights and can participate in government

decisions.

In Europe in the 1600s and 1700s, the absolute monarchies would be classified as unlimited

governments since there were no real restrictions to control the actions of the governments

against citizens and citizens had no recourse against the government. These monarchies based

their power on the idea of “divine right,” or the idea that their power came directly from God.

Decisions made by the rulers were therefore not questioned by the citizens. France and Russia

are two nations that continued to operate under and develop an unlimited government during this

time. Both created an absolutist system that concentrated power in the hands of the monarch.

Rights and freedoms were severely limited and the few which did exist could be cast aside

through the actions of the monarch. Three common ways that France and Russia displayed

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-2.1

unlimited authority were in raising taxes, in dissolving the legislative body, and in using the

military to enforce its policies.

There were changes that began to take place in Europe that began to restrain the power of

government and create a structure that was limited in nature. Many of these changes and ideas

were built upon the English tradition or model that began when King John signed the Magna

Carta (Great Charter) in 1215, acknowledging that the king was no longer above the law.

England’s government therefore had the beginnings of an unwritten constitution that would later

be built upon by the English Bill of Rights signed in 1689 (7-2.4).The most common and

successful methods included: constitutionalism and the creation of constitutional monarchies that

incorporated the principle of rule of law; democracy which granted people authority in the

functioning of government; and separation of powers which distributed the legislative, executive,

and judicial powers to several government bodies rather than allowing the concentration of these

powers into one body or person.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the names of rulers of European nations during these times nor

their specific policies or government practices.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Explain change and continuity over time and across cultures.

Understand responsible citizenship in relation to the state, national, and international

communities.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Analyze

Differentiate

Organize

Attribute

Or any verb from the Apply, Understand or Remember cognitive process dimensions.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-2.2

Standard 7-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of limited

government and unlimited government as they functioned in Europe in the seventeenth and

eighteenth centuries.

Enduring Understanding:

The relationship between citizens and their government is a fundamental component of political

rule. To understand the role of constitutions, the characteristics of shared powers, the protection

of individual rights, and the promotion of the common good by government, the student will …

7-2.2 Explain how the scientific revolution challenged authority and influenced Enlightenment

philosophers, including the importance of the use of reason, the challenges to the Catholic

Church, and the contributions of Galileo and Sir Isaac Newton.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge - 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

This is the first time students will learn about the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment.

In World History in high school, the students will learn about how the Scientific Revolution in

Europe led to the questioning of orthodox ideas (MWH-5.1).

It is essential for students to know:

The Scientific Revolution was born out of the advancements made in the areas of science and

math in the late 1500s and early 1600s. Following the age of exploration, new truths and new

research challenged previous thought processes and studies. As evidence mounted, scientists

began to question ancient theories and the orthodox teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.

These scientists began using reason or logical reasoning instead of placing their beliefs in faith

and demanding proof or evidence. Ptolemy’s theory of planetary motion (the geocentric theory)

and church teachings were brought into question by Copernicus’s heliocentric theory. Other

major achievements included the contributions of Galileo and Newton. Galileo offered support

for the heliocentric theory with his experiments concerning motion and his observation of space

with use of the telescope. Newton’s laws of gravity furthered the laws of motion and continued

the challenge of old theories. The scientific method was a major contribution of this time period,

establishing a systematic way to find proof using reason. This was the logical procedure for

testing theories that included beginning with a question, forming a hypothesis that is then tested

through experimentation, and finally analyzing data to reach a conclusion. A significant conflict

arose between scientific thought and traditional religious beliefs during this time. The theories

and books that were published also led to significant conflict with the church. The Bible, as

interpreted by the Roman Catholic Church, served as authority for society prior to the rise of

science. The teachings of the church, which were based on faith and revelation, felt significant

challenge from science, which offered empirical evidence for its theories. With the publication of

these new theories, the teachings of the Bible and the church were called into question. This was

a challenge to faith by reason. For the church, political, social, and economic authority was on

the line. Scientists like Galileo were called to renounce or stop their teachings and reaffirm the

teachings of the church or face excommunication, and Galileo was put under house arrest by the

church towards the end of his life because of his challenges.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-2.2

All of these challenges to authority inspired the philosophers of the Enlightenment to then begin

using reason to apply it to the political environment in Europe. Through the use of reason,

Enlightenment philosophers began developing ideas that challenged the unlimited governments

of the time and influenced the development of limited governments in the 1600s and 1700s.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the contributions of every scientist of this time period, such as

Brahe, Kepler, or Edward Jenner, or to have specific knowledge of the works of the scientists,

such as Copernicus’s On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies or Galileo’s Starry Messenger.

Instead, it is more helpful to focus on the broad concepts and major contributions of the time. In

that same vein, while there were many contributions made to scientific instruments and medicine

during this period, these can be briefly mentioned, for broader understanding but too much time

should not be spent in this area. The students also do not need to know the steps of the scientific

method.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Explain change and continuity over time and across cultures.

Evaluate multiple points of view or biases and attribute the perspectives to the influences

of individual experiences, societal values, and cultural traditions.

Assessment guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

Exemplify

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-2.3

Standard 7-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of limited

government and unlimited government as they functioned in Europe in the seventeenth and

eighteenth centuries.

Enduring Understanding:

The relationship between citizens and their government is a fundamental component of political

rule. To understand the role of constitutions, the characteristics of shared powers, the protection

of individual rights, and the promotion of the common good by government, the student will …

7-2.3 Analyze the Enlightenment ideas of John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Montesquieu,

and Voltaire that challenged absolutism and influenced the development of limited

government.

Taxonomy Level: Analyze/ Conceptual Knowledge - 4/B

Previous/future knowledge:

This is the first time students will learn about the Enlightenment.

In World History in high school, the students will learn about ideas that were brought about by

the Enlightenment (MWH-5.2). In United States History and the Constitution in high school, the

students will learn about the ideas of separation of powers and individual rights that are in

limited governments (USHC-1.5).

It is essential for students to know:

The Enlightenment was seen as an intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries which

sought to apply “reason” to society and thereby better understand and improve society. Politics -

its structure, purpose, and execution - was one of the areas where “enlightened” philosophy was

applied. To understand the political philosophy of the era, it is important for students to

understand absolutism as well as the concepts behind the state of nature philosophy and the

social contract theory. Absolutism was the basis of most governments in Europe at that time,

and these unlimited governments placed total or absolute power in the hands of the rulers (7-2.1).

Most of the governments were absolute monarchies based on divine right, the belief that rulers

received their power directly from God, and therefore citizens were expected to respond to all

decisions of the rulers without input or challenges. Therefore citizens also did not have any

guaranteed rights. The political philosophy of the Enlightenment presented a differing view that

provided a direct challenge to absolutism and therefore influenced the development of limited

government. The state of nature was a positive condition of human existence that preceded social

and political organization and was used by philosophers to explain the process by which political

organization occurred. The social contract theory was the idea that government was created as an

agreement (contract) between social groups as a way of structuring themselves in a mutually

beneficial manner. These two components are an important part of the “template” used by

philosophers during the Enlightenment to examine and classify government. It should be

understood that philosophers could and did apply these ideas in different ways.

John Locke of England is considered one of the great political philosophers of the

Enlightenment. Influenced by the Glorious Revolution, Locke saw the state of nature as a good

place and the social contract as a voluntary agreement to enhance life. Locke believed all

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-2.3

humans were born with natural rights, or rights belonging to all, and therefore presented a

challenge to absolutism. According to Locke, the social contract was an agreement between the

citizens and their government, and the government’s responsibility was to protect the rights of

the people. Locke argued that if the government did not protect these rights, then the people had

the right to break the contract by abolishing the government and creating a new one. Locke’s

ideas developed into the concept of the consent of the governed, or the belief that a government

gets its approval or “consent” from the people. Locke’s writings had a strong influence on

American patriots like Thomas Jefferson and in his writing of the Declaration of Independence.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau of France had a similar belief about the state of nature but his viewpoint

was different about the role of government. Since Rousseau saw society as the corrupting

influence on people, it was the role of government to protect the “general will” of the people. As

such, it was the government’s duty to implement policies deemed beneficial for the general

populace, or by basing decisions on majority rule. Roussea’s view of the social contract

therefore would also create a limited governement as the government’s power would be limited

by what the majority of citizens wanted. Rousseau’s ideas, along with those of Locke, formed

the foundation for the idea of popular sovereignty which is used in limited governments today.

Popular sovereignty, like consent of the governed, dictates that governments get their power and

legitimacy based on what the people or citizens want. American colonists largely rejected

Rousseau, but his writings would later provide part of the foundation for totalitarian

governments.

Baron de Montesquieu of France focused on governmental organization by promoting the ideas

of separation of powers and checks and balances. By creating a separation of powers, a

government must be limited as each branch checks the others’ powers. Montesquieu greatly

admired the English system of limited government from which he garnered these concepts.

These concepts did not originate with him, but he was largely responsible for popularizing them

and he advocated modifying the English system of the time of having two branches, executive

and legislative, to having three branches: the executive (monarch), legislative (Parliament), and

judicial (courts). The influence of his ideas is readily apparent in the U.S. Constitution.

Voltaire, the pen name of François-Marie Arouet, of France focused on civil liberties, mainly

freedom of speech and freedom of religion. Voltaire’s influence on limited government

therefore mainly is in the area of rights of the citizens. He wrote many books and plays to

demonstrate the use of reason and voice his views on social reform, often showing his dislike of

religious intolerance, advocating a separation of church and state, and modeling the right to

express personal opinion through free speech.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know where these philosophers were from or the titles of the political

writings of these philosophers.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Explain change and continuity over time and across cultures.

Evaluate multiple points of view or biases and attribute the perspectives to the influences

of individual experiences, societal values, and cultural traditions.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-2.3

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Analyze

Differentiate

Organize

Attribute

Or any verb from the Understand or Remember cognitive process dimensions.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-2.4

Standard 7-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of limited

government and unlimited government as they functioned in Europe in the seventeenth and

eighteenth centuries.

Enduring Understanding:

The relationship between citizens and their government is a fundamental component of political

rule. To understand the role of constitutions, the characteristics of shared powers, the protection

of individual rights, and the promotion of the common good by government, the student will …

7-2.4 Explain the effects of the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution on the power of

the monarchy in England and on limited government.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge - 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

This is the first time students will learn about the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution.

In World History in high school, the students will learn about ideas brought about by the

Enlightenment and their effects on institutions (MWH-5.2).

It is essential for students to know:

The English Civil War was a major struggle in England between the powers of the people,

represented in the form of Parliament, and the monarch, which was an issue that began in

England in 1215 with the signing of the Magna Carta. Parliament began making demands to the

monarch, King Charles I. Parliament wanted Charles I to allow Parliament to begin making

decisions on laws, which would limit the absolute power of the monarch. Parliament was

challenging the legitimacy of the divine right of kings philosophy (7-2.1). These challenges

were based on political, economic, and religious issues that had been going on since the reign of

Charles’ father James I. Politically, Parliament wanted more input in the government, again

trying to build on the foundations of the Magna Carta. Charles, like his father, refused to let

Parliament meet. In 1629, he physically locked them out of their meeting place at Westminster.

They were locked out for eleven years in what was called the Eleven Years Tyranny.

Economically, Parliament and Charles argued over issues related to the practice of raising money

by levying taxes and allowing men to buy titles. One example occurred when John Hampden, a

member of Parliament, refused to pay a new tax called the “Ship Tax” because Parliament had

not agreed upon the tax. Hampden was put on trial and found guilty, yet he was a symbol of

defiance by standing up to the king’s power.

In 1642, as tensions between Parliament and Charles continued to escalate, Charles sent soldiers

to arrest five members of Parliament that he considered to be his biggest critics. As Parliament

represented the people of England, this action by Charles was seen as an attack on the people.

Civil War broke out in 1642 between the supporters of Charles I, the Royalists, and the

supporters of Parliament. The supporters of Parliament soon fell under the leadeship of Oliver

Cromwell and his “New Model Army.” The New Model Army was able to claim major victories

over the Royalists. In 1646 Charles I surrendered, but in 1647 he escaped, and the next year the

civil war resumed with the Royalists being quickly defeated again. In 1649 Charles I was tried

for charges of abuses of power against Parliament and the people. He was found guilty and was

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-2.4

beheaded. The English Civil War was therefore a major event in challenges to absolute

monarchs of the time and served as foreshadowing of John Locke’s idea that a government or

ruler’s abuse of power should lead to its overthrow.

Between the end of the English Civil War in 1649 and the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689,

England’s government was in a state of transition. Charles II, son of Charles I, began trying to

regain power in Scotland while Oliver Cromwell became “lord protector”of England. Charles II

attempted an invasion and takeover of England but failed. After Cromwell died in 1658, his son

Richard took over as “lord protector.” Unlike his father, Richard Cromwell was a weak leader,

and after eight months he resigned. As the political situation in England became unstable,

Charles II was invited to retake the throne in 1660. After Charles II died in 1685, his brother

James II took the throne.

James II was Catholic, and Protestant leaders in England feared he would return England to the

turmoil of becoming a Catholic nation after over a century and a half of being Protestant since

the establishment of the Church of England in 1535. These Protestant leaders turned to William

of Orange, king of Scotland, for help, as he was Protestant and also married to the oldest

daughter of James II, Mary. William agreed to Parliament’s proposal and came to England

with an army in 1688. James II fled to France, and William and Mary took the throne that her

father had abdicated in a bloodless revolution known as the Glorious Revolution. Parliament

had prearranged with William and Mary that the monarchs would agree to some limits on their

power, and William and Mary therefore signed the English Bill of Rights in 1689. These

measures promoted a limited government in England as the monarch began sharing power by

allowing Parliament to make laws and assured the protection of individual rights for the people.

These measures are foundational principles of all limited governments that followed and were

inspirational to the Enlightenment philosophers.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the names of the battles or exact dates involved in the English

Civil War or Glorious Revolution but instead need to have a general understanding of the

storyline of the events. They also do not need to know the history or policies of the rulers of

England during this time. Students should be exposed to rulers such as Charles I, Oliver

Cromwell, Charles II, James II, William and Mary, but it is not necessary for them to know other

examples by name.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Explain change and continuity over time and across cultures.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

Exemplify

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-2.4

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-2.5

Standard 7-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of limited

government and unlimited government as they functioned in Europe in the seventeenth and

eighteenth centuries.

Enduring Understanding:

The relationship between citizens and their government is a fundamental component of political

rule. To understand the role of constitutions, the characteristics of shared powers, the protection

of individual rights, and the promotion of the common good by government, the student will …

7-2.5 Explain how the Enlightenment influenced the American and French revolutions leading

to the formation of limited forms of government, including the relationship between people and

their government, the role of constitutions, the characteristics of shared powers, the protection of

individual rights, and the promotion of the common good.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge - 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

In 4th grade, students learned about the ideas in the Constitution, the structure and function of the

branches of federal government, and how the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights

placed importance on the involvement of citizens and protected rights (4-4.1, 4-4.2, and 4-4.3).

In 8th grade, the students will learn about the basic principles of government as established in the

United States Constitution (8-3.3). In high school in World History, students will learn about

ideas brought about by the Enlightenment, including constitutionalism (MWH-5.2). In United

States History and the Constitution, students will learn about the early development of

representative government and how the fundamental principle of limited government is protected

by the Constitution (USHC-1.2 and USHC-1.5). In United States Government, students will

learn about the role and relationship of the citizen in democratic and republican systems, the

organizational structure of government, the role of constitutions, and the organization of

government in federal systems (USG-1.3, USG-1.4, USG-1.5, and USG-1.6). In this course

students will also learn about the core principles of United States government (USG-2.1). In this

course students will also learn about how the Constitution acts as the written framework of the

United States government, the structure of the branches, federalism, and the organization of local

and state governments in the United States federal system (USG-3.1, USG-3.2, USG-3.3, and

USG-3.4).

It is essential for students to know:

The American Revolution was inspired by the Enlightenment, and the French Revolution, in

turn, was inspired by the Enlightenment as well as the success of the American Revolution.

These two revolutions, utilizing the ideas of the Enlightenment, led to the formation of limited

governments and served as models for future limited governments and constitutions around the

world. The Enlightenment presented new beliefs about authority and the role of the individual in

government. John Locke presented ideas of natural rights of life, liberty, and property, and he

declared that it is the purpose of governments to protect these rights. Furthermore, he stated that

if a government fails to protect these rights, it is the right of the people to overthrow the

government. The ideas of Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Voltaire can also be seen in the

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-2.5

formation of limited forms of government (7-2.3). Based on these Enlightenment ideas, many of

these limited governments became representative democracies where the citizens choose other

citizens to represent them in the decision-making processes of government.

These Enlightenment ideas inspired the leaders of the American Revolution, and the ideals and

success of the American Revolution served as a model for the French and many other revolutions

that followed such as those in Latin America. The American Revolution drew upon Locke’s

beliefs in the Declaration of Independence. Thomas Jefferson made specific references to

Locke’s ideas to argue that the colonists were rebelling because their rights had been violated

and that they therefore had the right to alter or abolish their government. After gaining

independence, the writers of the United States Constitution then used Enlightenment ideas to

provide the framework for their new, limited government. The American Revolution

demonstrated that it was plausible for Enlightenment ideas about how a government should be

organized to actually be put into practice. Some American diplomats, like Benjamin Franklin and

Thomas Jefferson, had lived in Paris where they consorted freely with members of the French

intellectual class. A growing number of French citizens had absorbed the ideas of "equality" and

"freedom of the individual" as presented by Voltaire and other Enlightenment philosophers.

Furthermore, contact between American revolutionaries and the French troops who supported

them in the American Revolution helped spread revolutionary ideals to the French people. After

the American Revolution many French citizens began to attack the undemocratic nature of their

own government, leading to the French Revolution (7-3.1). Following these revolutions, the

ideas of the Enlightenment were used to develop limited governments and constitutions.

A constitution that creates a limited government as the relationship between the people and their

government embodies Locke’s idea of a social contract, as a constitution is an agreement

between the government and the people. According to this agreement, the role of constitutions is

to place limits on the government’s power by specifically outlining what powers the government

does or does not have, or what the government can or cannot do. Therefore, by specifying these

powers, the government cannot be unlimited or possess all the power. A constitution is the “law”

which establishes the structure and operation of government and details the relationship of the

people to their government. Constitutions are critical because they provide the government

legitimacy in ruling.

While they can, and do, address many issues, constitutions generally have provisions pertaining

to several key components: they provide the framework for the operation of the legislative,

executive, and judicial branches; establish the relationship between the national government and

the regional/provincial governments; and they define the relationship of government to the

citizens and the rights of citizens. The characteristics of shared powers are evident in the creation

of the three branches: executive, judicial, and legislative. These three branches clearly take

influence from Montesquieu’s idea of separation of powers. The concept of shared powers is

also established by the system of federalism as duties are divided between the federal and state

governments. The protection of individual rights is established by the Bill of Rights, which takes

influence from Locke’s idea of natural rights and also includes some of Voltaire’s rights. To

promote the common good of the nation, and not just a ruler or the government, the Constitution

requires citizen responsibility in electing representatives as well as in becoming representatives.

Citizens are held accountable to one another through the guidelines of the Constitution, and this

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-2.5

promotion of the common good displays influences from Rousseau’s idea of a nation having to

do what is best for the majority or ruling by general will. This concept is also known as popular

sovereignty (7-2.3).

Constitutions can be a single written document like in the United States or a collection of

traditions, precedents, legal rulings and documents that together comprise what is known as an

unwritten constitution like in England. Both forms of government are legitimate. The United

States had the first written constitution and helped set the foundation for what national

constitutions generally address. Many of the ideas and principles of the U.S. Constitution were

based upon the traditions and heritage of the unwritten English constitution. The tradition of a

government being responsive to the will of the people first occurred when King John signed the

Magna Carta (Great Charter) in 1215, acknowledging that the king was no longer above the law

(7-2.1). Not all constitutions are legitimate however. It is possible for a government to have a

written constitution, but not to follow the principles or guidelines set forth in it. The former

Soviet Union is an example of this. Constitutions are often classified as either “positive” or

“negative”. A “positive” constitution centers on the roles and responsibilities that a government

is to perform, for example, providing universal education for all citizens. A “negative”

constitution focuses on the limitations placed upon the government. The U.S. has a “negative”

constitution.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the sections or portion of the Declaration of Independence or any

other declarations of independence. Likewise, they do not need to know the sections of any

national constitution.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Explain change and continuity over time and across cultures.

Understand responsible citizenship in relation to the state, national, and international

communities.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

Exemplify

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-2.5

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.1

Standard 7-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of independence movements that

occurred throughout the world from 1770 through 1900.

Enduring Understanding:

The global spread of democratic ideas and nationalist movements occurred during the nineteenth

century. To understand the effects of nationalism, industrialism, and imperialism, the student will

. . .

7-3.1 Explain the causes, key events, and outcomes of the French Revolution, including the

storming of the Bastille, the Reign of Terror, and Napoleon’s rise to power.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge – 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

This will be the first time the students have learned about the French Revolution.

In high school World History, students will learn about the reasons for independence movements

as exemplified by the French Revolution (MWH-6.2).

It is essential for students to know:

The French Revolution was inspired by the Enlightenment and the American Revolution (7-2.5).

The French Revolution was caused by a series of events that together irreversibly changed the

organization of political power, the nature of society, and the exercise of individual freedoms.

The French Revolution was caused, in part, by the social imbalance of the Old Regime. Under

this system, France was divided into three social classes: the First, Second, and Third Estates.

The First Estate was the Roman Catholic clergy, who owned 15% of the land and were 1% of the

population. The Second Estate, the nobility, was 2% of the population and owned up to 25% of

the land. The rest of the population, the Third Estate; which included lawyers, craftsmen,

merchants and peasants paid the majority of the taxes on the remainder while being

underrepresented in government. The French Revolution also was caused by King Louis XVI,

who was a weak and extravagant leader in a time of crisis. He had incurred great debts caused by

war (including the French alliance in the American Revolution) and his own spending. His

people were already highly taxed, and banks refused to loan him any more money. This required

him to call together the Estates-General, the French legislative body. After the calling of the

Estates-General, the Third Estate insisted on a new power structure that would allow every male

citizen a vote instead of each Estate collectively having one vote each. This change would

guarantee them greater representation in the Estates-General. When their request was denied,

they seceded and formed the National Assembly, symbolizing an end to absolute monarchy and

the start of representative government in France. When shut out of the proceedings of the Estates

General a few days later, they gathered on the king’s tennis courts to write a new constitution for

the government, called the Tennis Court Oath. Shortly thereafter, on July 14, 1789, a mob of

peasants stormed the Bastille, a prison and armory. The peasants got weapons from the Bastille

and then tore the Bastille down as it was a symbol of the King’s power. This event represented

the beginning of the revolution, and July 14, or Bastille Day, is a national holiday in France.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.1

Riots then broke out across the countryside as peasants began raiding the homes of nobles,

killing and looting in response to their anger at the unfair Estate System and their increased

poverty.

In 1791, a constitutional monarchy was established, significantly weakening the power of the

king and granting power to the people in the form of the Legislative Assembly. The revolution,

however, became increasingly radical in nature. In late 1791, the Constitution was set aside, the

king imprisoned, and the legislature took over in the form of the National Convention. The

Convention declared France a republic based on universal male suffrage. The Convention

initiated a military draft to raise an army to protect the revolution from the armies of other

European monarchs and instituted the guillotine as a way of protecting the revolution from

“enemies” within France. Many of the Convention were members of the Jacobins, a radical

revolutionary group. From this group, Maximilien Robespierre increasingly gained power until

he became the leader of the Committee of Public Safety in mid-1793. Robespierre gained power

as a dictator (an example of failure to obey a country’s constitution and unlimited government 7-

2.1 and 7-2.5) and began the Reign of Terror in France. During the Reign of Terror, the violence

escalated with the mass execution by guillotine of 25,000-40,000 citizens deemed “enemies of

the Revolution.” Most of those executed were nobles as well as the king and queen. Determining

that Robespierre was too radical and fearing for their own lives, members of the National

Convention executed Robespierre in July of 1794.’

After the execution of Robespierre, the revolution took a more conservative turn. From 1795-

1799, France was ruled by five moderate men known as the Directory. During this time,

Napoleon Bonaparte was making a name for himself in the French army. When the Directory

lost favor in France in 1799, Bonaparte staged a coup d’etat and took the title of First Consul.

As ruler of a country that had been unstable for nearly ten years, Napoleon established a national

banking system, set up an efficient taxation system, and ended government corruption. He

restored the position of the Catholic Church in France, gaining the favor of the people and of the

Pope. He also wrote a uniform system of laws known as the Napoleonic Code. In 1804, with the

support of the people, Napoleon crowned himself emperor. Napoleon began his quest for a

European empire, and by 1812, he controlled most of Europe.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know specific details about the American Revolution beyond the

influence of the Enlightenment. Additionally, in-depth biographical information about Marie

Antoinette is not necessary. Although there are many details to the descriptions of each of the

governments leading France between 1789 and 1815, a brief description of each will suffice in

order for students to be able to grasp the necessity for the changes. Napoleon Bonaparte himself

is a fascinating study, but it is not necessary to know specific battles not essential to this

indicator (beyond the ones leading to his defeat) or the other aspects of his rise, regime and fall.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Explain change and continuity over time and across cultures.

Evaluate multiple points of view or biases and attribute the perspectives to the influences

of individual experiences, societal values, and cultural traditions.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.1

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

Exemplify

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.2

Standard 7-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of independence movements that

occurred throughout the world from 1770 through 1900.

Enduring Understanding:

The global spread of democratic ideas and nationalist movements occurred during the nineteenth

century. To understand the effects of nationalism, industrialism, and imperialism, the student will

. . .

7-3.2 Analyze the effects of the Napoleonic Wars on the development and spread of

nationalism in Europe, including the Congress of Vienna, the revolutionary movements of 1830

and 1848, and the unification of Germany and Italy.

Taxonomy Level: Analyze/ Conceptual Knowledge – 4/B

Previous/future knowledge:

This is the first time students will learn about the Napoleonic Wars and nationalism.

In high school World History, students will learn about nationalism and its effect on institutions,

the causes of the revolutions of 1830 and 1848, and the unification of Germany and Italy (MWH-

5.2, MWH-6.4, and MWH-6.5).

It is essential for students to know:

Napoleon began his quest for a European empire, and by 1812, he controlled most of Europe (7-

3.1). The Napoleonic Wars began after he declared himself emperor in 1804. Napoleon began

leading armies and sending his armies in to conquer neighboring countries in Europe, often with

much success. The French Empire extended from France into parts of Spain and Portugal to the

West and into parts of modern-day Germany and Italy as well as other nations to the East. The

stopping point of the Empire at its height was at the English Channel to the West and Russia to

the East as Britain and Russia were two places he was never able to conquer and consequently

helped lead to his defeat. Beginning in 1812, Napoleon made three mistakes that led to his

downfall: the blockade of Britain (called the Continental System); the Peninsular War; and the

invasion of Russia. In 1814, Napoleon surrendered his throne and was exiled to Elba. He escaped

from Elba in 1815, gathered his allies, and in the Hundred Days, waged his final attempt at

power. Napoleon’s final defeat came at Waterloo, after which he was exiled to St. Helena.

The immediate effects of the Napoleonic Wars were the development and spread of Nationalism

and further revolutions in Europe. As Napoleon’s armies were conquering other nations, his

soldiers also began to spread ideas of the Enlightenment, changes in government, and revolution.

These ideas indirectly led to Napoleon’s defeat as people in Europe began learning about

challenges to government as well as new systems of government. Napoleon’s armies, who had

lived through the French Revolution, shared news of the causes and events of their own

revolution, therefore spreading Enlightenment ideas about natural rights, social contract, and

limited government. Napoleon’s armies even backed revolutionary governments or movements

in the lands they conquered. At the same time, Napoleon began trying to impose French customs

and culture, and in response the conquered people began feeling more loyal to their own nations

and customs. Citizens of conquered lands such as Austria, Prussia, Italy, and Portugal therefore

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.2

began wanting to eliminate the French presence in order to gain self-rule, and the idea of

Nationalism developed and began to spread. Nationalism is the belief that one’s greatest loyalty

is to a shared culture (including aspects of common history, language, religion, and nationality)

rather than to a leader or border. As a result of Napoleon’s conquest of Europe, nationalist

sentiments were ignited. Enlightenment ideals, which manifested into the French slogan of

Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite,” or Liberty, Equality, Fraternity,” became the rallying cry for the

masses across Europe and throughout the world in the 1800s, contributing to the growth of

nationalism, which in turn caused various revolutions across Europe and Latin America.

However, the Great Powers at the Congress of Vienna reestablished the balance of power

following Napoleon’s exile in 1815. At the Congress of Vienna, all lands taken by Napoleon

were returned to the nations to which they belonged before Napoleon’s rule. The Congress of

Vienna also decided to reinstate the absolute monarchs to the thrones in countries that Napoleon

had defeated in an effort to reestablish the balance of power in Europe. Because of new ideas

that had spread and growing feelings of Nationalism, people in Europe wanted a change in

government, however. These absolute monarchs therefore had to suppress the democratic

movement encouraged by the French Revolution. Despite these moves to return conservatives to

power, the ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity had spread, feeding the nationalist

movements of the 1830s and 1840s. The two main aspects of nationalist movements in the 1800s

were: unification (peoples of common culture from different states were joined together) and

separation (groups splintered off from their current government to form one that was more

representative of their own interests). Liberals and radicals led nationalist movements to create

nation-states all across Europe after 1815.

Nationalist movements within Europe began in the Balkans with the Greeks, who rebelled

against the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1821. Supported by Britain, France, and Russia,

Greece became an independent nation in 1830. Within the next few years, despite the

arrangements of the Congress of Vienna, revolutions occurred in Belgium, Italy, and Russia,

though most were crushed by the mid-1830s. Led by the liberals, revolutions erupted across

Europe in 1848. Most were suppressed by conservative groups by 1849, with the exception of

the French uprisings. In France, Charles X had attempted to establish an absolute monarchy in

France in 1830 with no success. He was replaced by Louis-Philippe, who ruled until 1848 when

he lost favor with the people and was overthrown in favor of a republic. Upon establishment of

this republic, the radicals were divided as to what reforms should occur next. This uncertainty

allowed the moderates to take control, elect a president and establish a parliamentary system.

Louis-Napoleon (Bonaparte’s nephew) was then elected president. Four years later, Louis-

Napoleon took the title of Emperor Napoleon III, taking advantage of the political instability of

the country. During his reign, he stabilized and industrialized France.

In Germany, nationalism caused leaders to want to unify people that had shared customs and

cultures into one nation. The German Confederation was composed of thirty-nine loosely joined

states, of which Austria and Prussia were the largest and most powerful. Prussia had a mainly

Germanic population, a powerful army, and a liberal constitution, thus giving this state the

advantage in the creation of a unified German state. In Prussia, Wilhelm I was in power,

supported by the conservative Junkers. Wilhelm appointed Otto von Bismarck, a Junker, as his

prime minister. Bismarck took full control of the country, ruling under a policy known as

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.2

realpolitik, meaning “the politics of reality,” a style of power politics that leaves no room for

idealism. Stating that the decisions of the day would be decided not by speeches but rather by

blood and iron, Bismarck practiced his realpolitik theory and embarked on a campaign of

German unification. There were three wars of German unification from 1864 to 1871 with

Denmark, Austria, and France respectively. In the first, Austria and Prussia formed an alliance to

take land from Denmark. Soon thereafter, Bismarck purposefully created border conflicts with

Austria to provoke them into declaring war on Prussia, a war known as the Seven Weeks War. In

the final move for unification, Bismarck created an outside threat in an attempt to win the

support of the remaining German states. After Bismarck changed the wording of the Ems

Telegram to make it appear that Wilhelm I had insulted the French ambassador to Prussia, and

published this doctored version to media, the French were provoked to declare war, just as

Bismarck had hoped. After the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War, German

unification was complete.

In Italy, like in Germany, nationalism caused leaders to want to unify people that shared similar

customs and cultures into one nation. Count Camillo di Cavour led the unification of the

Northern Italian states. The kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was the largest and most powerful of

the Italian states, and with its liberal constitution, unification under this state appealed to many

Italians of neighboring northern states. With French assistance, Cavour won the Austrianoccupied

land of northern Italy. At the same time, Giuseppe Garibaldi, leader of the Red Shirts,

captured Sicily in the south. Cavour persuaded Garibaldi to unite the two sections, in 1860

allowing King Victor Emmanuel II to lead the united Italy with Rome as its capital. Soon

thereafter, Venetia and the Papal States were added as well.

Four short wars fought between 1859 and 1871 redrew the map of Europe while addressing the

questions of German and Italian nationalism. For the next four decades these Great Powers

would remain at peace and territorial disputes ceased to divide most of their governments,

despite the fact that nationalist grievances continued to fester in some places.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know biographical information about Napoleon Bonaparte. It is not

necessary to know specific battles from the Napoleonic Wars or the other aspects of his rise,

regime and fall. It is not essential for students to know every country involved in the revolutions

of 1848. A visual presentation would suffice to give an image that the revolts were, in fact, quite

widespread. Likewise, students do not need to know specific battles or leaders (other than those

mentioned above) of the unification movements.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Explain change and continuity over time and across cultures.

Interpret parallel time lines from different places and cultures.

Compare the locations of places, the conditions at places, and the connections between

places.

Evaluate multiple points of view or biases and attribute the perspectives to the influences

of individual experiences, societal values, and cultural traditions.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.2

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Analyze

Differentiate

Organize

Attribute

Or any verb from the Apply, Understand or Remember cognitive process dimensions.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.3

Standard 7-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of independence movements that

occurred throughout the world from 1770 through 1900.

Enduring Understanding:

The global spread of democratic ideas and nationalist movements occurred during the nineteenth

century. To understand the effects of nationalism, industrialism, and imperialism, the student will

. . .

7-3.3 Explain how the Haitian, Mexican, and South American revolutions were influenced by

Enlightenment ideas as well as by the spread of nationalism and the revolutionary movements in

the United States and Europe.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge – 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

This is the first time the students will learn about these revolutions.

In high school in World History, students will learn about ideas brought about by the

Enlightenment, the reasons for independence movements in Haiti and South America, and the

various movements for individual rights in Latin America (MWH-5.2, MWH-6.2, and MWH-

6.3).

It is essential for students to know:

The Haitian, Mexican, and South American revolutions were inspired by the Enlightenment as

well as by the American Revolution, the spread of nationalism, and the revolutions in Europe (7-

2.5, 7-3.1, and 7-3.2). The ideas of liberty and equality inspired independence from colonial

domination in this society driven by social structure.

Similar to the French Revolution, social class struggles and discontent played a large role in

Latin American independence movements. The peninsulares, the wealthy Spanish-born citizens,

constituted the smallest percentage of the population yet occupied the highest political positions

in society. The creoles were Spaniards born in Latin America who could not hold political office

but could be army officers. Together, these two classes possessed the wealth, power, and land in

Latin America. Beneath them in the social hierarchy were the mestizos (a mixture of European

and Indian ancestry), mulattos (a mixture of European and African ancestry), and the slave class.

In Haiti, the western third of the island of Hispaniola, the revolution was inspired by the

American Revolution in particular. This French colony, which was known as Saint-Dominigue

(French) or Santo Domingo (Spanish) prior to its independence, had a large slave population,

most of whom were treated brutally and lived in poor conditions. In 1791, a group of 100,000

slaves revolted, and Toussaint L’Ouverture soon became their leader. By 1801, L’Overture had

gained control of the island and freed all the enslaved Africans. In 1802, France sent troops to

deal with the situation and remove L’Overture from power. L’Overture was sent to France,

where he died in a French prison in 1803, but the French were unsuccessful in quelling the

rebellion. In 1804, Haiti declared its independence, thus making this the only successful slave

revolt in history.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.3

Having been educated in Europe and exposed to Enlightenment and revolutionary ideals, creoles

led the majority of the independence movements throughout the rest of Latin America. As these

ideals spread in Latin America, many mestizos and other lower classes were inspired by the ideas

of equality and freedom as well. Napoleon Bonaparte’s attempts to conquer nations in Europe,

and thus extend control over its colonies, caused many creoles to worry about foreign

domination by an absolute ruler [such as Napoleon’s decision to make his brother Joseph the

king of Spain] not unlike the experiences and feelings of many across the Atlantic (7-3.2). Also

similar to what was occurring in Europe, nationalistic feelings intensified desires for self-rule

and the revolutionary ideas that were spreading in Europe inspired creoles and the other lower

classes to begin fighting for the rights and equality not allowed by their class systems. Creoles

and the other lower classes throughout Latin America therefore used Enlightenment ideas such

as Locke’s idea of consent of the governed along with nationalistic ideas to justify rebellion

against Spain.

In Mexico, the independence movement was initially led by the mestizos. Padre Miguel y

Costilla Hidalgo (Father Miguel Hidalgo), inspired by Enlightenment ideals, called for rebellion,

and a crowd marched toward Mexico City. They were defeated in 1811 by the upper classes,

who feared losing their power to the lower classes. Another attempt at revolt four years later also

failed. Mexican independence finally was attained in 1821 when Mexican creoles, fearing the

loss of their power, declared independence from Spain with Agustín de Iturbide as their emperor.

In 1823, the nations of Central America (Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, and

Costa Rica) declared their independence from Mexico.

The revolutionary spirit was contagious in South America, as all across Spanish-controlled

colonial possessions, nationalist desire for independence from Spain spread. Like his neighbors

to the north, Simón Bolívar, a creole general, led the independence movements throughout South

America beginning in his home country of Venezuela in 1811. Bolívar then moved into

Colombia and Ecuador, where he met José de San Martín, who had recently freed Chile.

Together, the two men combined forces under Bolívar’s command to liberate Peru. Bolívar’s

dream to unite the Spanish colonies of South America into a single country, known as Gran

Colombia, was a reality for a short time as Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador were

temporarily united. But political issues soon separated the countries once again into their own

independent states.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know specific battles fought in each of these independence movements.

Additionally, although it might be helpful to mention other people involved in these

independence movements (others who assisted in starting or finishing the movements), it is not

essential information.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Explain change and continuity over time and across cultures.

Interpret parallel time lines from different places and cultures.

Compare the locations of places, the conditions at places, and the connections between

places.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.3

Evaluate multiple points of view or biases and attribute the perspectives to the influences

of individual experiences, societal values, and cultural traditions.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

Exemplify

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.4

Standard 7-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of independence movements that

occurred throughout the world from 1770 through 1900.

Enduring Understanding:

The global spread of democratic ideas and nationalist movements occurred during the nineteenth

century. To understand the effects of nationalism, industrialism, and imperialism, the student will

. . .

7-3.4 Explain how the Industrial Revolution caused economic, cultural, and political changes

around the world.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge – 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

In 5th grade, students learned about how the Industrial Revolution was furthered by new

inventions and technologies and the impact of industrialization (5-3.1 and 5-3.4).

In 8th grade, students will learn about industrial development in South Carolina compared to

industrialization in the United States (8-5.5). In high school in World History, students will learn

about the major technological and social characteristics of the Industrial Revolution, the

relationship between the expanding world market economy and the development of

industrialization, and about the economic ideologies of capitalism and socialism (MWH-5.3,

MWH-5.4, and MWH-5.5). In United States History and the Constitution, the students will learn

about the factors that influenced the economic growth of the United States and its emergence as

an industrial power, the role of capitalism, the impact of industrial growth, and the causes and

effects of urbanization (USHC-4.2, USHC-4.3, USHC-4.4, and USHC-4.5).

It is essential for students to know:

The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in the late 1700s following the Agricultural

Revolution and the early advancements in technology and machinery. The enclosure movement,

crop rotation, and advanced agricultural technology increased agricultural yields, which led to

increased population and forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or move to the cities.

Great Britain had the factors of production needed for industrialization, including natural

resources, rivers and harbors, experienced entrepreneurs, rising population, political stability,

increasing world trade, and economic prosperity and progress. Following its start in Great

Britain, the Industrial Revolution spread to the United States and those countries of continental

Europe in which factors of production were available such as Belgium and Germany. Later, in

Japan, industrialization began as a response to growing imperialistic threats against the nation.

The Industrial Revolution caused major economic, cultural, and political changes around the

world.

The Industrial Revolution was an economic revolution, and therefore economic changes were

widespread and still continue to impact our world today. These economic changes led to cultural

and political changes. Economic changes began with the invention of machines. New textile

machines for spinning and weaving that had previously been done by hand increased production

of cloth goods. The modernization of textile technology revolutionized industrialization. The

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.4

flying shuttle advanced textile production by doubling the amount of weaving a worker could do

in one day, and this machine was soon joined by the more advanced spinning jenny, which

allowed one spinner to spin eight threads at a time. At first operated by hand, these machines

were soon powered by the water frame. In 1779, the spinning mule was invented as a

combination of the spinning jenny and water frame, and the mule produced a stronger product

than its predecessors. In 1787, the water-powered power loom increased the speed of weaving

yet again. The cotton gin significantly increased cotton production following its invention in

1793. As reliance on large, expensive machines increased, factories were built to house the

machines, rather than the “cottage industries” of handwork previously done at home in earlier

times. Due to the increasing demand for waterpower to drive machines, factories were built near

rivers or streams. Therefore, jobs that had previously been done by individuals in the home were

moved to factories. These factories were built in existing cities or established towns near water

sources, and after the development of the steam engine by James Watt, factories began being

built away from water sources as well as the engine became the new power source for machines.

Coal and iron were the main resources used to power and build these engines and machines, and

later, in the second wave of the Industrial Revolution that began in the 1870s, electricity,

chemicals, and steel were the main sources for industrial business.

Transportation improved with the development of the steam engine as well. The steam engine

was soon used to power steamboats and locomotives, leading to the building of canals and

railways for trade and transportation. The railroad boom created new jobs for railroad workers

and miners were needed to obtain coal to power these new engines. With less expensive means

of trade and transport of goods, industries developed and trade over longer distances grew and

travel for humans was easier as well. With the development of the factory system came the

division of labor as individuals were assigned specific tasks, which led to increased worker

productivity and increased output of manufactured goods. Through the development of

interchangeable parts, where many identical parts where produced rather than the previous

process of creating unique items by hand, it became possible to mass produce and repair many

goods with the aid of machines and refined them by hand. Mass production allowed goods to be

produced for a cheaper price, making them more accessible to an increasing portion of the

population. Workers spent long hours in the factories, often fourteen hours a day, six days a

week. The working conditions were dangerous and often resulted in injury, but there was no

recourse for such injuries. Individuals could earn more in factories than on farms, leading to a

large rural-to-urban migration.

Rural-to-urban migration led to many social changes. Unfortunately, the division of labor also

made clear the division between the worker and owner classes. Many European cities at least

doubled in population during this period of history. Because of the low pay for workers and

because the living conditions in cities were unregulated, housing conditions were often very poor

as the working class lived in crowded areas often without basic utilities such as running water.

Conditions were often unsanitary due to these circumstances along with increase pollution from

the factories, and crime increased due to poverty; however there was often inadequate police

protection. The middle and upper classes, usually business owners or other professionals,

typically moved to nicer homes in the suburbs, which was a tangible reflection of the growing

class divisions.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.4

Because working conditions were so dangerous and because of the growing class divisions,

further economic changes began along with political changes. Laissez-faire capitalism was the

foundation of the Industrial Revolution, as this was the economic system in which all factors of

production were privately owned and there was no government interference. But capitalism,

based on laws of competition, supply and demand, and self-interest, also allowed for great

disparity in wealth. Supporters of capitalism opposed the creation of minimum wage laws and

better working conditions, believing that it would upset the free-market system and weaken the

production of wealth. The working class was increasingly oppressed by the middle and upper

classes. This lead to a rising support of socialism, because of the belief that such a system would

provide for the greater welfare of the masses of working class people and allow the government

to plan the economy in order to promote equality and end poverty. Socialism at that time offered

workers more protection than capitalism did, and it also promised that it would better distribute

wealth according to need. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, writing in The Communist Manifesto,

proposed a radical socialism, stating that society was dividing into warring classes. It was

proposed that the proletariat (the “have-nots”, or the workers), who were oppressed in their

current conditions, would overthrow the bourgeoisie (the “haves”, or the owners) and create a

“dictatorship of the proletariat.” Although this proletariat revolution did not occur during the

Industrial Revolution, Marx provided the fuel for future reforms and revolutions.

In addition to the rise of socialism, labor unions and reform laws came about in the 1800s as a

means to correct the disparities between social classes. Unions negotiated for better working

conditions, higher pay, and shorter hours, and they would strike if demands were not met. These

unions were restricted at first, but over time achieved nominal success. In the 1830s, the British

Parliament began regulating mine and factory conditions for women and children, bringing much

needed reform. While individual gaps in wealth were problematic at this time, a global wealth

gap also was occurring. As industrialized nations gained power over non-industrialized nations,

these industrial powers began looking to exploit the weaker nations for resources and markets.

Thus, imperialism was born out of the industrial era.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the dates for each invention. Additionally, specific knowledge of

each inventor or invention is not necessary. Focus, instead, should remain on the overall impact

that the inventions had on economic changes. It is not essential for students to know about every

invention of the Agricultural or Industrial Revolution. The focus should be on the trends and

goals of this time, so a basic overview will be sufficient. Similarly, it is not essential to know the

names of all manufacturers associated with the Industrial Revolution or the specialized products

of every industrialized nation. While some might find it helpful to choose a mill city to focus on

in order to paint a picture of industrial life (such as conditions, hours worked, organization, etc.),

none of these cities are essential for study. Although the United States is important to highlight

in terms of the spread of the Industrial Revolution, this is not essential overall in terms of a

global focus. Additionally, it is not necessary to know every reform law passed during this time,

but instead, focus should be on the general changes made by these acts.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Explain change and continuity over time and across cultures.

Interpret parallel time lines from different places and cultures.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.4

Compare the locations of places, the conditions at places, and the connections between

places.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

Exemplify

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.5

Standard 7-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of independence movements that

occurred throughout the world from 1770 through 1900.

Enduring Understanding:

The global spread of democratic ideas and nationalist movements occurred during the nineteenth

century. To understand the effects of nationalism, industrialism, and imperialism, the student will

. . .

7-3.5 Analyze the ways that industrialization contributed to imperialism in India, Japan, China,

and African regions, including the need for new markets and raw materials, the Open Door

Policy, and the Berlin Conference of 1884.

Taxonomy Level: Analyze/ Conceptual Knowledge – 4/B

Previous/future knowledge:

This is the first time the students have learned about imperialism.

In high school in World History, students will learn about the relationship between the

expanding world market economy and the development of industrialization (MWH-5.4). In

United States History and the Constitution, students will learn about the purposes and effects of

the Open Door Policy (USHC-5.3).

It is essential for students to know:

Industrialization was the primary economic origin of imperialism (7-3.4), because a wealth gap

was created between industrialized and non-industrialized nations. Industrialized nations sought

both raw materials from these less developed countries and new markets for finished products.

Europe, the United States, and Japan were key imperial powers, while countries in Asia and

Africa were the most sought-after areas to colonize. Supporting the economic drives for

imperialism were political and social forces. The race for colonies created a competition among

European powers. Nationalist sentiment was stirred, and each country also sought to hold the

most competitive posts around the world. Additionally, the belief in Western superiority, driven

by Social Darwinism, justified imperial conquests. Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s

Burden” became an anthem for imperialism, stating that it was the duty of the Western powers to

take their superior culture to the lesser nations, despite the resistance they might encounter.

In Asia, India became the “jewel of the crown” for Britain after the British East India Company

set up trading posts along the Indian coast. After suppressing the Sepoy Rebellion (7-3.6), India

officially became part of the British Empire and Britain began to exploit India for its raw

materials while setting up markets there to sell British manufactured goods, thus hurting many

Indian industries (such as the cloth industry) that could not compete with British

industrialization.

In Japan, the government reopened trade with the West after the United States threatened to

attack the capital city of Edo (modern-day Tokyo). Commodore Matthew Perry of the U.S. navy

was sent with warships to the coast of Japan with a treaty that the Japanese government was

forced to sign in order to avoid attack. As a result of this treaty, Japanese trade, closed since a

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.5

return to isolationism that began in the 1600s (7-1.5), was reopened. Industrialized nations of

Europe then began going to Japan to use as a market for their industrial goods as well. As a

result of these aggressive actions, the Japanese government decided to industrialize quickly

during the Meiji Restoration in order to avoid being imperialized and to begin its own

imperialism (7-3.6).

China, like Japan, was forced to open itself to trade by industrial powers. As a result of losing

the Opium Wars with Britain (7-3.6), the Chinese government was forced to sign a treaty

allowing Britain to begin trading and setting up markets in China. Other European industrial

nations, as well as the United States and later Japan also wanted access to China as a source of

markets. After the Opium Wars, Britain and other European nations began carving China up into

their own “spheres of influence” where they controlled special trading and economic rights

within their designated area or section of China. The United States, wanting access to China as

well, therefore created the Open Door Policy, stating that China should be open to all nations

rather than just one or a few nations having control of the country.

In Africa, Europeans also began exploring and then eventually taking over land to get more raw

materials that were needed as a result of industrialization. This exploration and increasing

interest led to a treaty whereby Belgium gained the Congo. Soon after Belgium claimed a section

of Africa, other nations of Europe scrambled to do the same. The Berlin Conference of 1884-85

set forth the rules for the division of Africa. Fourteen European nations met, with no African

representation, to divide the continent with little regard to ethnic or linguistic boundaries. With

Europe’s advanced technology, primarily in weaponry and steamships, and the cultural disunity

of Africa, the African nations were easily dominated. Only Liberia and Ethiopia were not

imperialized by 1914. Despite the European agreement to peaceful division, conflicts still arose.

In South Africa, for example, the Dutch, British, and Africans fought for land and resources (7-

3.6).

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know every land colonized during the period of imperialism, but instead

should have a general understanding of areas that industrial powers exploited and why. It would

be helpful to focus on the trends seen and why certain areas were desirable over others (the

political, economic, and social gains).

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Explain change and continuity over time and across cultures.

Interpret parallel time lines from different places and cultures.

Compare the locations of places, the conditions at places, and the connections between

places.

Evaluate multiple points of view or biases and attribute the perspectives to the influences

of individual experiences, societal values, and cultural traditions.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.5

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Analyze

Differentiate

Organize

Attribute

Or any verb from the Apply, Understand or Remember cognitive process dimensions.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.6

Standard 7-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of independence movements that

occurred throughout the world from 1770 through 1900.

Enduring Understanding:

The global spread of democratic ideas and nationalist movements occurred during the nineteenth

century. To understand the effects of nationalism, industrialism, and imperialism, the student will

. . .

7-3.6 Explain reactions to imperialism that resulted from growing nationalism, including the

Zulu wars, the Sepoy Rebellion, the Opium Wars, the Boxer Rebellion, and the Meiji

Restoration.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge – 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

Although students have studied imperialism as it relates to US History in grade 5(5-3.5), this is

the first time the students have learned about nationalist reactions to imperialism.

In high school in World History, students will learn about the Indian nationalist movement and

the Meiji era in Japan (MWH-6.6).

It is essential for students to know:

The Zulu Wars in South Africa pitted imperial competition for land in South Africa by industrial

nations against nationalism (7-3.5). The Dutch, British, and African people all sought the land

and resources of the country. In the early 1800s, Shaka Zulu of the Zulu Kingdom in South

Africa created a centralized state. The Boers, Dutch settlers known as Afrikaners, began

encroaching on lands of the Zulus. In a display of nationalism, Shaka Zulu led the South

Africans in attacks against the Boers to protect his empire from Dutch control. His successors,

however, were unable to continue his rule as the British exerted an increasing pressure in the

area. In the 1880s, the Zulu War was fought against the British as the Zulus sought to retain

independence, illustrating their growing nationalism. The Zulu nation, lacking the weaponry of

the British, was defeated, and the Zulu nation became part of the British Empire.

The Sepoy Rebellion in India was a result of British imperialism there (7-3.5). The British East

India Company dominated India after the decline of the Mughal Empire. To maintain control of

British interests in India, the company hired Indian soldiers known as sepoys to protect their

trading interests, which were extensive at this time. India was the “jewel of the crown” in the

British Empire, as it supplied raw materials to Britain’s industries and was viewed as a potential

market for the finished products. As Britain increasingly exerted its influence over India, the

Indians became more oppressed and discontented in their citizenship. While Britain did build

railroads, modern communication systems, and schools in India, they also suppressed the local

culture. In 1857, amid rumors that the new gun cartridges were greased with beef and pork fat

(the cartridge ends had to be bitten off in order to be used), the Hindu and Muslim Sepoys led a

revolt known as the Sepoy Rebellion against the British. Following the uprising, which took a

year to suppress, the British government took full control of India.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.6

The Opium Wars and Boxer Rebellion took place in China as a result of imperial interests there

(7-3.5). China was self-sufficient in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries and

therefore was not interested in buying goods from industrial nations. But Britain, determined to

open trade with China, found a product that these Chinese citizens willingly bought: opium.

China attempted to halt the opium trade, but to no avail. Their defeat in the Opium War signaled

the beginning of the increase in foreign influence in China as the British forced the Chinese to

sign a treaty allowing Britain to begin trade in China (7-3.5). At the same time, China was

undergoing an internal rebellion, the Taiping Rebellion, in an attempt to establish a kingdom in

which no one would live in poverty. This rebellion, combined with increasing Western influence,

led to increased pressure on the imperial government to reform. The self-strengthening

movement was of little success. Taking advantage of the internal struggles; Europe, Japan, and

the U.S. increasingly gained economic spheres of influence in this region. In 1899, the U.S.

declared equal trading rights with China with the Open Door Policy (7-3.5). As a reaction to the

newly declared Open Door Policy and the Chinese government’s failure to respond to internal

and external issues, the Righteous and Harmonious Fists (renamed by Europeans as the Boxers),

a nationalistic organization which used martial arts to try to remove foreigners from Chinese soil,

led the Boxer Rebellion in an effort to rid China of all foreign influence. The Boxers struck out,

killing many foreigners and Chinese Christians, while also causing major damage to foreignowned

shops and businesses. The Boxers were defeated by an eight-nation alliance consisting of

nations that had economic interests there. The Chinese government was forced to pay the nations

involved for damages done by the Boxers in the rebellion, and the eight nations were allowed to

maintain their spheres of influence. Although the rebellion was a failure, it did lead to an

increasing sense of nationalism and need for reform in China.

The Meiji Restoration in Japan was a response to Japan’s growing nationalism and desire to

protect itself from imperial aggression it was witnessing (7-3.5). After being forced to open its

ports to trade by the United States, the Japanese government decided to take progressive action

in order to make its economy and its military more like that of the Western powers, and therefore

realized it must industrial. In 1868 the emperor of Japan took the title Meiji meaning

“enlightened rule.” To respond to increasing imperial power in the region, the Meiji government

decided to follow a Western model and even sent diplomats to study in Europe and the United

States. These actions caused some negative reactions from conservatives in Japan, but the Meiji

government continued its pursuits. Following these models, Japan was able to quickly

industrialize and therefore began imperial conquests of its own. In 1894 Japan went to war with

China in order to try to gain control of trade in Korea so that Japan could have access to raw

materials and establish markets for their goods there. China had been in possession of Korea at

the time. Japan was able to demonstrate to China and the world its new industrial might by

quickly defeating China in the Sino-Japanese War, and Japan gained control of Korea as a result.

Ten years later in 1904 Japan was once again able to show its power by quickly defeating Russia

in the Russo-Japanese War. Russia wanted access to trade with Korea, but Japan was still in

control of Korea. As the Russians sent a naval fleet headed to Korea, the Japanese navy met

them at sea and destroyed much of the Russian naval fleet. After a short period of fighting, the

Russians surrendered in 1905, acknowledging Japan’s sole right to Korea. The Meiji Restoration

therefore successfully made Japan into an industrial nation and changed its status as it became a

world power with imperial claims and ambitions that rivaled European nations and the United

States.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.6

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know details regarding each native government. The indicator addresses

reactions to imperialism, so focus should remain on causes and effects of the conflicts.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Explain change and continuity over time and across cultures.

Interpret parallel time lines from different places and cultures.

Compare the locations of places, the conditions at places, and the connections between

places.

Evaluate multiple points of view or biases and attribute the perspectives to the influences

of individual experiences, societal values, and cultural traditions.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

Exemplify

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.7

Standard 7-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of independence movements that

occurred throughout the world from 1770 through 1900.

Enduring Understanding:

The global spread of democratic ideas and nationalist movements occurred during the nineteenth

century. To understand the effects of nationalism, industrialism, and imperialism, the student will

. . .

7-3.7 Explain the causes and effects of the Spanish-American War as a reflection of American

imperialist interests, including acquisitions, military occupations, and status as an emerging

world power.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge – 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

In 5th grade, students learned about the reason for the United States control of new territories as a

result of the Spanish American War (5-3.5).

In World History in high school, students will learn about the changing role of the United States

in international affairs and its increased role as a world power (MWH-7.3). In United States

History and the Constitution, students will learn about the development of American

expansionism and the influence of the Spanish-American War on the emergence of the United

States as a world power (USHC-5.1 and USHC-5.2).

It is essential for students to know:

In 1823, President James Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the Americas

were off limits to further European colonization. One of the strongest tests of the Monroe

Doctrine came in the latter part of the century with Cuba’s fight for independence from Spain.

Cuba declared its independence from Spain in 1868, and fought unsuccessfully for ten years to

gain emancipation. During the 1890s, the US gained economic interests in Cuba. In 1895, Jose

Marti launched the second attempt for independence. The Spanish-American War was caused in

1898 when the U.S. assisted Cuba in their fight for independence, claiming the Monroe Doctrine

as justification for involvement. The US sent the USS Maine into Havana Harbor to protect its

national interests. The explosion of the USS Maine, which the Americans attributed to a Spanish

mine, led to the American declaration of war against Spain. This declaration of war delighted the

American newspapers, which were scrambling for the most sensational and competitive

headlines, a style known as yellow journalism. The Spanish-American War lasted four months,

with the US first attacking the Philippine Islands (another Spanish possession), resulting in a

two-front (two ocean) war. Following the war, the US gained the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto

Rico as territories. Rather than recognizing Cuban independence, the US placed a military

government in Cuba and exerted control over the country’s affairs, leading to resentment on the

part of Cubans. Guantanamo Bay in Cuba was leased by the US in order to establish a major

naval base on the island. Filipinos did not receive independence either. The effect of the Spanish-

American War was an increase in US imperialistic desires. In 1904, President Roosevelt issued

the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, declaring the US as an international police

power in the Western Hemisphere with justification to intervene in Latin America. In an

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-3.7

expression of the growing political and economic power of the US, President Roosevelt sent the

U.S. Navy, known as the Great White Fleet, on a world tour. Soon thereafter, the U.S. intervened

in the affairs of other nations, encouraging a Panamanian revolution against Colombia in

exchange for the right to build the Panama Canal. The U.S. intervened increasingly in the affairs

of Latin American countries, leading to an economic imperialism that established US supremacy

in the Western Hemisphere.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know details of the battles of the Spanish-American War. The battle for

independence in the Philippines and the construction of the Panama Canal, although fascinating

to many, are not essential for student knowledge of this indicator.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Explain change and continuity over time and across cultures.

Compare the locations of places, the conditions at places, and the connections between

places.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

Exemplify

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.1

Standard 7-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the causes and effects of world

conflicts in the first half of the twentieth century.

Enduring Understanding:

The influence of both world wars and the worldwide Great Depression are still evident. To

understand the effects these events had on the modern world, the student will . . .

7-4.1 Explain the causes and course of World War I, including militarism, alliances,

imperialism, nationalism, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the impact of Russia’s

withdrawal from, and the United States entry into the war.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge – 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

In 5th grade, students learned about the factors that led to United States involvement in WWI and

the role of the United States in fighting the war (5-3.6).

In 8th grade, the students will learn about reasons for the United States involvement in WWI and

its impact on South Carolina (8-6.1). In high school in World History, students will learn about

underlying causes of WWI and the role of the United States in international affairs (MWH-7.1

and MWH-7.3). In United States History and the Constitution, students will learn about the

causes and consequences of United States involvement in WWI (USHC-5.4).

It is essential for students to know:

The M.A.I.N. causes of World War I were Militarism, secret Alliances, Imperialism, and

Nationalism. The driving force was nationalism (7-3.2). Not all nations had states; many were

included in empires such as the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires. Many of these people

wanted independence from these empires and the creation of their own states. Ethnic and

ideological differences also led to conflict within these empires. Nationalism also spurred

economic and political rivalries among states that led European nations to establish a complex

system of military alliances. Russia, France and England formed an alliance and Germany, Italy

and Austria-Hungary formed a competing alliance. Newly united countries, such as Germany

and Italy, along with established empires, were anxious to establish colonies to gain wealth

through the acquisition of natural resources and trade. Imperialism therefore served as another

form of competition between nations in Europe. Militarism had been an ongoing process as

imperial nations in Europe had continued to build up bigger and more powerful armies and

navies that allowed them to conquer lands around the world while also protecting their political

and economic interests. With these militaries in place and the other underlying causes also

serving as primers, the scene was set for war. The igniting incident or “spark” of the “Great

War” occurred in the “powder keg” of the Balkans with the assassination of the Archduke Franz

Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in Bosnia by a Serbian nationalist. The

resulting confrontation between Austria-Hungary and Serbia quickly involved much of Europe in

the ensuing conflict because of the entangling pre-war alliances. Nations honored their

agreements to back one another in war, beginning with Russia joining in on the side of Serbia

and then Germany entering in on the side of Austria-Hungary.

Grade 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.1

New weapons and the development of trench warfare made the course of World War I different

from previous wars and more deadly. The new technology of the Industrial Revolution led to the

development of new weaponry, such as long range artillery, poison gases and gas masks,

submarines, tanks, machine guns, airplanes, and flame throwers. Although both sides thought

the war would be over quickly due to these new weapons and their massive militaries, by 1915

the war eventually bogged down into trench warfare and a costly stalemate.

There were three main fronts in the war: the Western Front, the Eastern Front, and the Italian

Front. Most of the trench warfare took place on the Western Front in France, and the majority of

the fighting was between the French and British on one side and the Germans on the other. This

led to an eventual stalemate on the Western front that lasted until 1917 as neither side could

force the other into surrendering. On the Eastern front, the majority of the fighting was between

the Germans and the Russians, with some involvement from Serbia and other nations trying to

break free from imperial rule on the side of the Russians and Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman

Empire, and Bulgaria on the side of Germany. On the Italian Front, Italy fought alongside the

French against German and Austro-Hungarian troops against the very countries it had allied

itself with prior to the war’s beginning. Russia withdrew from the war in 1917, and this had a

major impact on the war as Germany was then able to concentrate its focus on the Western Front

with a stronger potential for victory.

Prior to WWI, Russians began to express discontent over economic, political, and social issues.

Russians were discontented over issues like high taxes, working conditions, and political rights.

The devastation from WWI increased the discontent felt by the Russian people. Czar (Tsar)

Nicholas II was unable to manage Russia’s ongoing difficulties and his authoritarianism

weakened popular support for his power. As a result, in 1917 revolts of the working class led to

the Bolshevik (Russian) revolution. Czar Nicholas II was overthrown and eventually he and his

heirs were executed. The Bolsheviks, led by Lenin, withdrew from the eastern front and

abandoned their allies in 1918, signing a separate peace treaty with Germany. As a result of the

Russian withdrawal from the war, the British and French defenses on the western front became

crucial in determining the outcome of the war and allies were sorely needed.

The entry of the United States into the war during the same year as Russia’s withdrawal therefore

had a major impact on the eventual Allied victory. The United States declared neutrality at the

outbreak of the Great War. However, various factors challenged American neutrality and

eventually led to the involvement of the United States in the Great War. The traditional trading

partnership with Great Britain and the blockade of German ports by the British navy severely

limited American trade with Germany. American businesses made loans to the Allies in order to

continue trade. Public opinion was impacted by America’s traditional connection to the British.

The German unrestricted use of the submarine affected public opinion against Germany and

alienated President Wilson, who was incensed by the loss of innocent lives. The 1915 German

U-boat’s sinking of the British passenger ship, the Lusitania, brought about sharp protests from

the President Wilson but did not bring the United States into the European war. Instead,

Germany pledged to restrict their use of the submarine. Wilson campaigned for reelection in

1916 on the slogan that “he kept us out of war.” The interception and publication by the British

of Germany’s Zimmerman Telegram to Mexico, which offered Mexico a deal to gain land in

America in return for their attack on the United States, negatively impacted American public

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.1

opinion towards Germany. The decision of Germany to resume unrestricted submarine warfare

in the spring of 1917 led to the sinking of U.S. merchant ships, and these events along with

Wilson’s desire to “make the world safe for democracy” prompted Wilson to ask Congress to

declare war on Germany in April of 1917. The American Expeditionary Force affected the

course of the war by deflecting the last push of the Germans on the western front in France, and

the armistice of November 11, 1918 ended the fighting between the Allies and the Central

Powers.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the specific dates and strategic details of fighting in World War I

or the Russian Revolution.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Compare the locations of places, the conditions at places, and the connections between

places.

Select or design appropriate forms of social studies resources* to organize and evaluate

social studies information.

Identify and explain the relationships among multiple causes and multiple effects.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

Exemplify

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.2

Standard 7-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the causes and effects of world

conflicts in the first half of the twentieth century.

Enduring Understanding:

The influence of both world wars and the worldwide Great Depression are still evident. To

understand the effects these events had on the modern world, the student will . . .

7-4.2 Explain the outcomes of World War I, including the creation of President Woodrow

Wilson’s Fourteen Points, the Treaty of Versailles, the shifts in national borders, and the League

of Nations.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge – 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

In 5th grade, students learned about United States involvement in WWI and about daily life in

America in the post-World War I period, but this is their first real exposure to the outcomes of

WWI (5-3.6 and 5-4.1).

In 8th grade, the students will learn about the war’s impact on South Carolina (8-6.1). In high

school in World History, students will learn about the major shifts in world geopolitics between

1900 and 1945 and about the conflicts as a result of the collapse of the German, Habsburg, and

Ottoman empires (MWH-7.3 and MWH-7.4). In United States History and the Constitution,

students will learn about the United States involvement in the Treaty of Versailles and the

League of Nations (USHC-5.4 and USHC-5.5).

It is essential for students to know:

The major effects of WWI were diplomatic solutions, geographic and political changes, and

economic consequences. Students should recognize the Treaty of Versailles as the major peace

treaty of World War I (WWI) and be able to describe the vital components of this Treaty. They

should understand that President Wilson brought his proposals, known as the Fourteen Points, to

the conference at Versailles to correct many of the problems that caused the Great War and to

bring about a lasting world peace. Wilson wanted the basis of the Treaty to address the causes of

the war, and his Fourteen Point Proposal therefore contained many ideas directly intended to

undo the M.A.I.N. causes. Some of these points included no military build-up, no secret

alliances, and the right to self determination. His fourteenth point included the idea of creating a

League of Nations, an international organization designed to resolve disputes between nations

and thereby avoid future wars. Unfortunately, the positive proposals of Wilson and the punitive

peace treaty that the Allies subsequently constructed were very different. While Wilson wanted

to focus on addressing the causes of the war, the major European victors primarily wanted to

weaken Germany and maintain, or enhance, their standing in the world. The latter view prevailed

and, with the exception of the League of Nations, dominated the Treaty’s provisions. In its final

format, the Treaty of Versailles (1919) was structured to punish Germany and included, among

its foremost features, the “War Guilt Clause” in which Germany accepted responsibility for

starting the war; German reparations; military restrictions such as limiting the army to 100,000

soldiers, and no air force or submarines; demilitarization of the Rhineland; and German

Grade 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.2

territorial losses (both internally such as Alsace-Lorraine and all overseas possessions). This

emphasis on German retribution created a structural foundation which would contribute to

economic and political instability in the years to come. Furthermore, Russia, among other nations

negotiated different treaties and was denied a seat at the Versailles negotiations. This lack of

input undermined the cohesiveness of the victors and contributed to the inability of the Treaty to

provide stability and prevent future wars.

While seen as the crowning achievement of the Treaty of Versailles by many, the League of

Nations proved to be ineffectual in achieving its goal of world peace. At its core, the League was

very weak and unstructured nor was it given the components necessary to bring about its lofty

goal. For instance, not all major powers were members of the League. The United States chose

not to join, while Germany and Russia were not allowed to join (Germany was finally allowed to

join in 1926, but withdrew in 1933, while the Soviet Union finally joined in 1934). Japan and

Italy, who were charter members, withdrew (in 1933 and 1937, respectively). The League had

virtually no authority or influence with these nations thereby limiting its ability to influence

international affairs. Another weakness involved the inability of the League to enforce its

directives. Primarily the League had to rely upon moral persuasion – a tenuous tool at best. In

theory the League could wage war, but would have to use volunteer troops from member nations,

an act that was not going to occur readily. A third weakness of the League was that it required

unanimous consent for decisions, an almost impossible directive in most situations. Because of

these and other weaknesses, the League never became the international forum for solving

disputes among nations that it was intended to become.

It is critical for students to recognize the changes in political boundaries in Europe following

WWI. Nationalism, one of the causes leading to WWI, was an issue that needed to be addressed

as nations emerged from the conflict. In his Fourteen Points, Wilson proposed self-determination

as one of the critical components to be used in determining international borders. This principle

would be utilized selectively, however, as it would not be applied to the victorious Allied

Powers. The other major principle was to weaken those countries of Central and Eastern Europe

that fought with the Central Powers. It is important that students be able to use maps and

understand the significant territorial changes in Europe as a result of WWI. The most significant

changes included the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires, German territorial

losses (including all overseas colonies), the creation of Poland, and Russian territorial losses

initially due to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (the separate peace negotiated between Germany and

Russia in 1917, though the Soviets did regain some of this territory after the war).

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know Wilson’s Fourteen Points or to know all the conditions of the

Treaty of Versailles, but they should be familiar with the general differences between the two. It

is also not necessary for the students to be able to name all the new nations created after WWI,

but they should be able to cite and identify on a map the key pre/post war differences. Students

are not required to know the formal organizational structure of the League of Nations, nor are

students required to know the names of the various treaties associated with WWI.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.2

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Compare the locations of places, the conditions at places, and the connections between

places.

Select or design appropriate forms of social studies resources* to organize and evaluate

social studies information.

Identify and explain the relationships among multiple causes and multiple effects.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

Exemplify

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.3

Standard 7-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the causes and effects of world

conflicts in the first half of the twentieth century.

Enduring Understanding:

The influence of both world wars and the worldwide Great Depression are still evident. To

understand the effects these events had on the modern world, the student will . . .

7-4.3 Explain the causes and effects of the worldwide depression that took place in the 1930s,

including the effects of the economic crash of 1929.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge - 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

In 5th grade, students learned about the causes of the Great Depression and the American

government’s response to the Great Depression (5-4.2 and 5-4.3).

In 8th grade, the students will learn about reasons for depressed conditions in the textile mills and

on farms in South Carolina and the effects of the Great Depression (8-6.3 and 8-6.4). In high

school in World History, students will learn about the responses of the governments of Britain,

France, Germany, and Italy to the economic challenges of the 1920s and 1930s (MWH-7.2). In

United States History and the Constitution, students will learn about the causes and

consequences of the Great Depression and about the New Deal as a response to the economic

crisis (USHC-6.3 and USHC-6.4).

It is essential for students to know:

The depression of the 1930s, most commonly referred to as the Great Depression, was

international in scope and not limited to the American experience with which most students are

familiar. Due to the severe damages caused by World War I (WWI) and the heavy monetary

penalties imposed on Germany by the reparations included in the Treaty of Versailles, serious

economic problems developed in Europe. Many European nations were faced with the expense

of having to rebuild from the war, and although the Allied nations were using the reparations

from Germany to help rebuild, the expenses due to the extreme damages of the war were high.

Nations also faced the transition of soldiers returning from the war looking for work or replacing

workers who held their jobs during wartime. Along with this transition, wartime spending had

stretched many nations financially but had also kept employment high due to jobs created to

maintain their militaries. Because of these factors, unemployment therefore rose in many nations

after the war. Germany faced the greatest economic challenges due to the high reparations and

the loss of some of its prime industrial land and resources imposed by the Treaty of Versailles.

While this seemed to support British and French goals for post-war aims articulated in the Treaty

of Versailles in order to prohibit and prevent Germany from causing another worldwide war,

German economic weakness actually hurt trade and production in Western Europe as well. In

1923, France further sabotaged Germany’s ability to become economically viable and thus pay

owed reparations by seizing the Ruhr Valley (Germany’s main industrial region). Germany’s

response was to begin printing money that had no economic support, thereby causing

Grade 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.3

hyperinflation and the devaluing of money across the continent. Due to all of these financial

difficulties and the necessity to rebuild, European nations were not buying and investing in

foreign goods, including goods from the United States.

Despite economic problems in Europe, the economy of the United States experienced an

artificial boom in the 1920s. American companies continued producing goods at the high

volume they had achieved during wartime to which they were accustomed expecting beneficial

trade to continue. American farmers, who had fed the Allied armies and the people of Europe

throughout the war, no longer had the European market and were in depression throughout the

1920s. The wages of industrial workers remained low. For a while, many Americans were able

to buy goods on the installment plan; but, by the end of the decade, American consumers were

reaching the extent of their buying power. The 1920s seemed like a boom time because many

Americans increasingly bought more stock in U.S. companies, hoping the good times would

continue. These stocks were often bought on credit (on margin), however, and the investments

were therefore risky as they relied on further business growth. This increase in buying stock on

margin led to stock values rising quickly, making it appear as though money was there to be

easily and quickly made and therefore enticing more investors into the risky stock market. When

sales of goods slowed because European consumers could not buy and American consumers

slowed their purchases, companies began experiencing a surplus of goods with an ever-shrinking

customer market. As this surplus rapidly increased, investors began to sell their stock and stock

prices began quickly declining in the late 1920s. Creditors began demanding payment for stocks

bought on margin, yet investors had no real wealth to make repayments. Investors intensified the

selling off of stocks at a high volume and withdrew their money from the banks to meet their

financial obligations. All of these activities culminated in a Stock Market Crash. On October

29, 1928, known as Black Tuesday, the United States experienced the biggest loss in financial

worth in the stock market. As a result of losses in the stock market and declining consumer

demand, companies laid off workers and unemployment rose, thus furthering the problem of

surplus goods because of shrinking demand. The cycle escalated as layoffs increased, sales

decreased, and more people went to the banks to withdraw all of their money. These “runs on

the banks” affected people nationwide as even depositors who had not invested in the stock

market had their savings wiped out in the panic to retrieve funds as banks had loaned much of

their capital and both the deposits and loans were not protected by bank insurance at the time. At

the same time that people were losing their savings, banks demanded full payment of their loans

(“calling the loan”-no protections in place to prevent this occurrence then ) in order to reinstate

their capital and prevent closure, causing citizens with mortgages or other loans to begin losing

their homes or other collateral. Unemployment and homelessness continued to increase, banks

and businesses closed, and the economic depression in the U.S. then intensified the worldwide

depression.

The US had emerged from the economic chaos of WWI and the early 1920s as a creditor of

European nations and therefore the European economy was integrally linked to that of the US.

As aforementioned, European nations were strapped financially as they were trying to rebuild

and recover from the war. Many nations therefore borrowed money from the United States.

Germany especially relied on U.S. loans as it was also dealing with the high reparations imposed

by the Treaty of Versailles. As the U.S. economy worsened in the late 1920s, U.S. investors

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.3

began calling their loans to European nations while also discontinuing the practice of loaning

money to Europeans. Without these loans, the economies of European nations began to suffer.

Germany’s economy suffered the most as it depended the most on U.S. loans. European nations,

like the U.S., also depended on worldwide trade due to industrialization; yet due to economic

problems in the U.S. and in Europe, investments in markets in Africa, Asia, and South America

decreased. As these investments decreased, the economies in nations of these other continents

began to suffer, and by the early 1930s the worldwide depression had begun.

The effects of this worldwide depression included varied economic responses by governments

and enabled the rise of totalitarian governments in some nations (7-4.4). The reaction of most

nations was to turn inward in a policy of isolationism by focusing on solving their own nations’

economic problems. In democratic nations, the governments worked to improve economic

conditions through the passage of laws. In nations that turned to totalitarian leaders, these

leaders used their power to begin imperializing to gain raw materials and markets to help

stimulate the economy, which would eventually lead to World War II (7-4.4 and 7-4.5).

The US responded by overwhelmingly electing Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) in the 1932

presidential election. FDR proposed and Congress approved programs that together became

known as the New Deal. These policies primarily focused on relief and reform in the form of

public works programs to increase employment as well as regulations on the stock market,

banks, and business and agricultural production. The New Deal greatly enhanced the national

government’s role in the economy and in the lives of individuals. For the first time in American

history, direct relief as provided by the government was a significant component of everyday

life. Britain, on the other hand, enacted protectionist policies (policies designed to protect the

domestic industries and services from foreign competition) such as dropping the gold standard

and increased government ownership and/or management of key industries. Britain also raised

taxes to loan money to new businesses in the hope of increasing employment.

In Germany, the depression provided the opportunity for radical groups to participate in the

political process (a standard reaction in almost all democratic governments) and saw the rise of

the Nazi Party in Germany. Hitler was able to take advantage of economic anxiety, political

discontent, and the parliamentary structure of the German government to become the German

Chancellor in 1933. He utilized the economic conditions and the ensuing anxiety to eliminate

political opponents, consolidate political power, and ultimately establish totalitarian control over

the government. (The German hatred of the Treaty of Versailles coupled with Hitler’s repeated

renunciation of the Treaty greatly increased his popularity and advanced his political career).

Similarly, the economic depression allowed Benito Mussolini to gain support in Italy and

allowed for a military takeover of the government in Japan. The totalitarian governments of

Germany, Italy, and Japan would use the economic depression to justify the takeover of other

nations in order to help improve their own economies (7-4.4 and 7-4.5).

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the causes of the Great Depression nor of its specific economic

impact in each of these nations. Students do not have to know the specific programs or how they

were implemented in these nations, including the New Deal. While students do not have to know

the myriad causes of the Great Depression it would be useful for students to connect the cost of

Grade 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.3

WWI, the Treaty of Versailles (its economic conditions), and increasingly international

economies as reasons for its expansion beyond the US economy.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Compare the locations of places, the conditions at places, and the connections between

places.

Identify and explain the relationships among multiple causes and multiple effects.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

Exemplify

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.4

Standard 7-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the causes and effects of world

conflicts in the first half of the twentieth century.

Enduring Understanding:

The influence of both world wars and the worldwide Great Depression are still evident. To

understand the effects these events had on the modern world, the student will . . .

7-4.4 Compare the ideologies of socialism, communism, fascism, and Nazism and their

influence on the rise of totalitarian governments after World War I in Italy, Germany, Japan,

and the Soviet Union as a response to the worldwide depression.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

This is the first time students will learn about these political ideologies.

In high school in Modern World History, students will learn about socialism and communism

and about how the responses of the governments of Germany and Italy to the economic

challenges of the 1920s and 1930s contributed to the renewal of hostilities in the years leading to

WWII (MWH-5.5, MWH-7.2, and MWH-8.1).

It is essential for students to know:

The problems that existed in Germany, Italy, Japan, and the Soviet Union after World War I led

to the establishment of totalitarian governments in these countries. Socialism and Communism

were the main ideologies of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union became a communist nation

after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. The focus of Communism is to empower the proletariat,

or working classes, and decrease the wealth and power of industrial capitalists. In order for this

to be accomplished, industry, production, and business must be controlled by the whole society

and not a few competing individuals. Wealth would therefore be distributed equally to citizens.

Competition and private property would be abolished, and collectivization, or owning property

as a group, becomes the focus of the society. Land would be arranged in communes, shared by

citizens. Communism also called for social changes such as the end of the need for religion and

the establishment of a communal education. For these changes to take place, communism calls

for the overthrow of democratic and capitalist societies by the working class and the institution

of governments that oversee the establishment of collective ownership of business and property

and the equal distribution of wealth. Socialism is based on the economic principles of

Communism and not on the ideas of violent revolution. Therefore, the primary focus of

socialists is creating an economic system where the working classes could share in the wealth

generated by industry, and society as a whole, represented by the government, would therefore

collectively own businesses and the means of production. Joseph Stalin used these ideologies to

strengthen his totalitarian rule. Stalin became the leader of the Soviet Union in 1928 after having

been the general secretary of the Communist Party. After Lenin’s death in 1922, Stalin had

worked hard to win support from his fellow Communist members. He exiled Leon Trotsky, his

biggest rival, in 1929; created a totalitarian state; and made the country an industrial power. He

had a secret police monitor everything said and written; censored all sources of information; and

used propaganda to maintain his power. During the Great Purge, Stalin even terrorized members

Grade 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.4

of the Communist Party, whom he thought were a threat to his power. Furthermore, Stalin

persecuted religious institutions, primarily the Russian Orthodox Church and had religious

leaders killed, forcing religious faith and practice to go underground. As a totalitarian leader,

Stalin implemented a command economy, ordering several Five-Year Plans, which focused on

heavy industrialization. Industrial production increased dramatically, but there were shortages of

light, consumer goods. Stalin also began a policy of Collectivization in the country. His

government confiscated all farms and combined them into huge government-controlled farms to

increase food production. Agricultural production increased by the late 1930s, but many wealthy

peasants (kulaks) who protested collectivization, were killed. Stalin, thus improved the economy

and education in the Soviet Union, however the people had no political rights.

Fascism became popular in Italy and Germany because people blamed the democratic

governments in the two countries for the problems that existed after World War I and during the

Great Depression and were consequently willing to try radical, political, and social experiments

in the running of their countries. Fascism was the political movement that emphasized an

extreme form of nationalism and power to the state. Named for a Roman symbol of power, a

bundle of rods tied with an axe called a fasces, Fascist governments denied people their

individual liberties and were led by authoritarian leaders. The leaders of Fascist governments

used various methods to create unity and spirit and consolidate their power. Such methods

included special salutes, military steps and emblems; holding rallies and military parades for the

public; and instituting elite military groups that utilized absolute power and terror tactics.

Italy was very dissatisfied with the outcome of World War I in the Treaty of Versailles because

the country was not rewarded a large amount of land. Italy’s democratic government was blamed

for the inflation, unemployment and economic problems that existed in the country after the war.

Benito Mussolini was able to capitalize on the political and economic unrest in the country and

gain power by founding the Fascist Party in 1919. He organized a group of supporters called the

Black Shirts (for the color of their uniforms), who started to attack Communists and Socialists.

Mussolini promised to strengthen the economy and was soon able to gain the support of the

middle class and industrialists by ending a general strike that paralyzed the country. He seized

power in 1922 when his fellow Fascists marched to Rome and told King Emmanuel to make

Mussolini the leader of the government. Mussolini was given the title of “Il Duce”, or The

Leader. He set up a Fascist dictatorship and used a secret police and censorship to maintain his

power. Once his power was established, Mussolini was able to begin increasing the size of the

military. In an attempt to display that Italy was becoming an empire and show dissatisfaction

with the Treaty of Versailles, Mussolini used his new military to invade Ethiopia in 1935 and

again in 1937.

Nazism, which was based on Fascism, began in Germany. Germany was devastated by World

War I and furious with the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, especially the war guilt cause.

The high cost of war reparations and the loss of valuable of territory coupled with the aftermath

of war hastened the onset of the Great Depression which led to political dissatisfaction and the

perfect opportunity for a demigod to step in by promising to restore former glory. Adolf Hitler

helped to found a fascist group called the National Social German Workers or the Nazi Party.

Like the Italian Fascists, the Nazis used mass rallies, special salutes, and special troops called the

Brown Shirts and used the swastika as its symbol. Hitler and his group attempted to overthrow

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.4

the Weimar Republic in 1923, but failed. Hitler was imprisoned, and wrote Mein Kampf, in

which he discussed his goals for Germany. He claimed that the Germans, whom he called

“Aryans” were the “master race” and blamed others for Germany’ woes. His book discussed his

hatred for the Hebrew people, and his desires to regain lost German lands and unite all Germanspeaking

people. The deepening of the Great Depression strengthened support for Hitler and the

Nazi Party, which became the largest political party in 1932. Consequently, President Paul von

Hindenburg appointed Hitler chancellor. Hitler then gained control of the new government and

created a totalitarian state by establishing a secret police called the Gestapo, outlawing all other

political parties, imprisoning political opponents utilizing censorship and propaganda, banning

unions and controlling the economy. Known as the Fuhrer, or leader, Hitler and his government

focused on building factories and infrastructure and ignored the stipulations of the Treaty of

Versailles, by beginning to militarize Germany. With this strengthened military, Hitler

continued defying the Treaty of Versailles and began aggressive actions in Europe by moving

troops into the Rhineland in 1936, taking over Austria in 1938, taking the Sudetenland in 1938,

and finally claiming all of Czechoslovakia in 1939.

When the Great Depression occurred, Japan was a newly industrialized country still heavily

dependent on its export earnings to finance its imports of essential raw materials and fuel.

Already suffering from the introduction of artificial silk products, its luxury export sales

plummeted during the Depression, causing distrust of the West and its markets. Further

compounded by bad harvests in several regions, the Japanese economy reeled and military

leaders touted expansionism in the East (Asia) as a solution to address problems of market,

shortages of natural resources and farmland deficiencies simultaneously while building on the

nationalists feelings that had made the country a world power just prior to the turn of the century.

Military leaders took control of the main operations of the government, leaving the Emperor as

mainly a figurehead at the command of the military. The rise of a totalitarian state in Japan

therefore took the form of military control. Under this military leadership, the Japanese acted on

this policy of expansionism beginning in 1931 with the invasion of Manchuria. The League of

Nations could only voice its disapproval of the invasion, and the Japanese responded by

withdrawing from the League in 1933. Japan attacked China in 1937, which caused communist

and noncommunist forces in China to unite to fight the foreigners.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the specific biographies or legislations of any of the leaders of the

countries where these ideologies developed.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Compare the locations of places, the conditions at places, and the connections between places.

Select or design appropriate forms of social studies resources* to organize and evaluate social

studies information.

Identify and explain the relationships among multiple causes and multiple effects.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Grade 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.4

Interpret

Exemplify

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.5

Standard 7-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the causes and effects of world

conflicts in the first half of the twentieth century.

Enduring Understanding:

The influence of both world wars and the worldwide Great Depression are still evident. To

understand the effects these events had on the modern world, the student will . . .

7-4.5 Summarize the causes and course of World War II, including drives for empire,

appeasement and isolationism, the invasion of Poland, the Battle of Britain, the invasion of the

Soviet Union, the “Final Solution,” the Lend-Lease program, Pearl Harbor, Stalingrad, the

campaigns in North Africa and the Mediterranean, the D-Day invasion, the island-hopping

campaigns, and the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge -2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

In 5th grade, students learned about the principal events related to the involvement of the United

States in WWII, the role of key figures during the war, key developments in technology, and the

social and political impact of the war on the American home front and the world (5-4.4, 5-4.5, 5-

4.6, and 5-4.7).

In 8th grade, the students will learn about the ramifications of WWII on South Carolina and the

United States as a whole (8-6.5). In high school in World History, students will learn about the

underlying causes of WWII, the responses to economic challenges in the 1920s and 1930s that

led to hostilities in the years leading to WWII, major shifts in world geopolitics between 1900

and 1945 (MWH-7.1, MWH-7.2, and MWH-7.3). In United States History and the Constitution,

students will learn about the United States decision to enter WWII, the impact of war

mobilization on the home front, controversies among the Big Three Allied leaders over war

strategies, and the economic, humanitarian, and diplomatic effects of the war (USHC-7.1,

USHC-7.2, USHC-7.3, and USHC-7.4).

It is essential for students to know:

The causes of World War II focus on the military aggression displayed by Germany, Italy, and

Japan prior to the war, as well as the discontent caused by provisions in the Treaty of Versailles.

All three countries wanted to establish empires, and little was done by the international

community, consumed by their own economic woes, to stop them. Italy was very dissatisfied

with the outcome of World War I in the Treaty of Versailles because the country was on the

victorious side and was not rewarded with a large amount of land. Germany was devastated by

World War I and furious with the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, especially the war guilt

cause. The high cost of war reparations and the loss of valuable of territory coupled with the

aftermath of war hastened the onset of the Great Depression, which led to political dissatisfaction

and the perfect opportunity for Adolf Hitler’s rise to power (see indicator 7-4.4). Italy and

Germany then began military aggression in their drives for empires, which soon led to a second

world war. Mussolini attacked Ethiopia in 1935. The League of Nations protested the attack but

did nothing to stop the Italians. The League of Nations also failed in preventing Hitler from

militarizing his country and then occupying the Rhineland. Germany, Italy, and Japan formed the

Grade 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.5

Axis Alliance in 1936. Germany and Italy also sent troops and weapons to Spain to assist

Francisco Franco in winning the Spanish Civil War in 1936. While these events were taking

place in the 1930s, the United States chose a foreign policy of isolationism, passing a series of

Neutrality Acts that prohibited the country from loaning money or selling weapons to countries

at war, and thus, hopefully, preventing some of the issues that had led the US into the Great War.

Great Britain and France falsely believed that a policy of appeasement would prevent another

world war. This lack of a firm hand against aggression allowed Hitler to annex Austria in 1938,

another violation of the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler then demanded the Sudetenland in western

Czechoslovakia and during the Munich Conference of 1938, the British and French agreed to

allow Hitler the Sudetenland in return for promises that his demands for additional territory

would cease. The policy of appeasement was proven a failure in early 1939 when Hitler invaded

Czechoslovakia and Italy invaded Albania soon after. WWII began in September 1939 when

Hitler invaded Poland and its British and French allies came to its defense, abandoning

appeasement.

Japan also engaged in military aggression in its own drive for an empire. When the Great

Depression occurred, Japan was a newly industrialized country still heavily dependent on its

export earnings to finance its imports of essential raw materials and fuel. As the Japanese

economy suffered, military leaders pushed for expansionism as a solution to address problems of

markets and shortages of natural resources while building on the nationalists feelings that had

made the country a world power just prior to the turn of the century. The Japanese first acted on

this policy beginning in 1931 with the invasion of Manchuria. The League of Nations could only

voice its disapproval of the invasion, and the Japanese responded by withdrawing from the

League in 1933. Japan attacked China in 1937, which caused communist and noncommunist

forces in China to unite to fight the foreigners and various countries of the world to respond

sympathetically to the aggression with economic sanctions against Japan.

World War II therefore had two theaters of fighting: Europe and Asia. The Germans conducted a

blitzkrieg or “lightening war” against Poland, and the Soviets, German allies due to the Soviet

Non-Aggression Pact signed in 1939, attacked Poland from the west. Denmark and Norway soon

fell to Germany, and France surrendered to the Germans in 1940. Hitler then focused on

invading Great Britain. During the Battle of Britain (1940-1941), the German air force

repeatedly bombed the country. The British, however, used radar to prepare for attacks and had

technology that enabled them to decode German secret messages. The British, under the

leadership of Prime Minister Winston Churchill, refused to surrender, and Hitler instead had to

focus on attacking other areas in Europe. Fighting also occurred in North Africa and in the

Balkans. The Germans wanted to control the Suez Canal in order to have access to the oil-rich

Middle East. Yugoslavia and Greece fell to the Axis Powers in 1941. Hitler then betrayed his

ally, the Soviet Union, and attacked that country in 1941. The Germans were unsuccessful in

taking both Leningrad and Moscow and 500,000 Germans died during the invasion.

Despite the passage of several Neutrality Acts between 1935 and 1937, President Franklin

Roosevelt recognized the necessity of US involvement in the war to prevent the defeat of the

Allies and subsequent Nazi takeover of Europe. Thus, in 1939, Congress amended its isolationist

policy of neutrality to allow the US to sell weapons to the Allies that were paid for with cash and

transported (cash and carry policy) on their own ships, once again seeking a solution different

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.5

from that which drew the US into WWI. This alternative, however, was not enough to help the

Allies, so in 1941 Congress stepped even further away from its professed neutrality when it

passed the Lend-Lease Act. Lend-Lease allowed Roosevelt to lend or lease weapons and other

supplies to countries that were important to the interests of the U.S.

Japan invaded French Indochina in 1941, prompting the US to place an oil embargo on Japan to

prevent further aggression. Japan then attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and Congress

declared war on Japan the next day. The Japanese moved quickly throughout the Pacific taking

over Guam, Wake Island, Hong Kong, the Philippines, the Dutch East Indies, and Burma. The

tide began to turn in favor of the United States in 1942. The US defeated Japan in the Battle of

Coral Sea, saving Australia from a Japanese invasion. Next, the US defeated Japan in the Battle

of Midway, heavily damaging hundreds of Japanese planes and all of the aircraft carriers on the

island. After the Battle of Midway, the US began to engage in an “island-hopping” (or

“leapfrogging”) strategy, thus bypassing islands heavily secured by Japan in favor of taking

islands that were strategically located in the drive reach the main islands of Japan yet easier to

seize, thus saving countless American lives. A turning point occurred when the Japanese

experienced a devastating loss at the Battle of Guadalcanal, the first offensive against Japan

launched by combined allied forces on land, sea and air.

By the end of 1942, the tide was turning in favor of the Allies in the Mediterranean and along the

Eastern Front. Allied forces, led by American General Dwight Eisenhower, defeated German

General Rommel’s forces in North Africa. The Germans were also on the defensive, a turning

point, after they were defeated by the Russians in the Battle of Stalingrad in February 1943. As

the Soviets continued to push the Germans from the east, British and American forces invaded

and conquered Sicily in 1943. Allied forces entered Rome in 1944, and Mussolini was killed in

1945 by his own countrymen. The invasion of Normandy, called D-Day, to liberate Germancontrolled

France and northern Europe began on June 6, 1944 and the Allied forces were able to

liberate France by September. Hitler’s final attempt to achieve a victory against Allied forces

was at the Battle of the Bulge. Despite breaking through American defenses, the Germans were

ultimately pushed back and forced to retreat. Allied troops from both east and west moved into

Germany, causing the Germans to surrender (VE Day) on May 7, 1945. The US then moved

closer to defeating Japan by victories at Iwo Jima and Okinawa. Citing the need to hasten the

war’s end and save lives that would be lost in an invasion of the island country, President Harry

Truman ordered the dropping of an atomic bomb on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and over

Nagasaki three days later. Six days after the dropping of the second atomic bomb, Japan

announced its intention to surrender, formally doing so on September 2, 1945 (VJ Day).

Throughout the war, the Holocaust had been carried out by the German Nazis, claiming the lives

of more than six million Jews and numerous others. This will be discussed in the following

indicator. (See Standard 7-4.6).

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the specific dates or names of military leaders of all the important

battles of the war.

Grade 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.5

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Compare the locations of places, the conditions at places, and the connections between

places.

Select or design appropriate forms of social studies resources* to organize and evaluate

social studies information.

Identify and explain the relationships among multiple causes and multiple effects.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

Exemplify

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.6

Standard 7-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the causes and effects of world

conflicts in the first half of the twentieth century.

Enduring Understanding:

The influence of both world wars and the worldwide Great Depression are still evident. To

understand the effects these events had on the modern world, the student will . . .

7-4.6 Analyze the Holocaust and its impact on European society and Jewish culture, including

Nazi policies to eliminate the Jews and other minorities, the Nuremberg trials, the Universal

Declaration of Human Rights, the rise of nationalism in Southwest Asia (Middle East), the

creation of the state of Israel, and the resultant conflicts in the region.

Taxonomy Level: Analyze/ Conceptual Knowledge – 4/B

Previous/future knowledge:

This is the first time the students will learn about the Holocaust, the Universal Declaration of

Human Rights, the rise of nationalism in Southwest Asia (Middle East), the creation of the state

of Israel, and the resultant conflicts in the region.

In high school in World History, students will learn about the origins of the conflicts in the

Middle East as a result of the creation of the state of Israel after WWII (MWH-7.5). In United

States History and the Constitution, students will learn about the Holocaust, the war crimes trials,

and the creation of Israel (USHC-7.4).

It is essential for students to know:

The Holocaust was a systematic plan of persecution and elimination of Jews and others deemed

“undesirable” that was coordinated by Hitler’s Nazi (National Socialist) Party of Germany prior

to and during World War II. The prejudice that caused the Holocaust was based on anti-

Semitism, which was part of the Nazi ideology. Religious and cultural differences coupled with

suspicion and envy had made the Hebrew people frequent scapegoats during times of crisis

throughout the history of Europe. Increased movement by Jews into the mainstream of some

European life led to increased prejudice as Jews were often stereotypically seen as more

intellectual and successful and less nationalistic than others. Hitler’s anti-Semitism could have

stemmed from these or numerous other irrational prejudices, but its existence was used as a

rallying point to unite the German people in their quest first for economic recovery and later for

empire, Aryan glory and world domination. Nazis claimed that the German people were a

“master race” and used the word “Aryan” to describe them. Hitler claimed that all non-Aryan

people were inferior, and he wanted to eliminate people he considered inferior, including those

of Jewish ancestry, Poles, Russians, Communists, Gypsies, homosexuals and anyone considered

physically or mentally deficient. Hitler and the Nazi Party passed the Nuremberg Laws in 1935,

which denied German citizenship to Jews and prevented them from marrying non-Jews. Jews

were also ordered to wear the Star of David so they could be immediately recognized in public.

On November 9, 1938, Nazi troops attacked Jewish businesses, synagogues, and homes and

killed approximately 100 Jews, known as Kristallnacht, or “Night of Broken Glass.” Next, Jews

were ordered to move into ghettos and lived in terrible conditions. The worst, however, was yet

to come. Hitler’s “Final Solution” forced Jews across Europe into concentration camps, where

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.6

many died en route in cattle cars, were exterminated in specially designed showers and

crematoriums or through brutal experiments, or barely survived in work camps. Most camps

were located in Germany and Poland. When prisoners arrived at the concentration camps, they

were examined by SS doctors. The Nazi soldiers allowed the strong (mainly men) to live in order

to serve as laborers while many of the women, elderly, young children, and the disabled were

killed soon after arriving at the concentration camps. The genocide killed well over six million

Jews, comprising two thirds of the European Jewish population and estimates of the total number

of fatalities range from 11 to 17 million souls lost (See Standard 7-4.5).The Nuremberg Trials,

conducted in 1945-1946, saw twenty-two Nazi leaders charged with “crimes against humanity”

for these actions, illustrating to the world that such behavior was indefensible and unacceptable

regardless of the circumstances and that each individual bears responsibility for his own actions.

An International Military Tribunal, representing 23 countries, conducted the trials and ten of the

Nazi leaders were hanged and their bodies were burned at a concentration camp.

The Zionist movement had gained strength in the late 1800s and early 1900s, with many Jews

returning to Palestine and calling for a Jewish nation-state. The Balfour Declaration (1917),

issued by the British, further increased the tension between the Jews and Palestinians because the

British supported the creation of a Jewish state as long as the rights of the Palestinians were

protected. With the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in WWI, Palestine became a British mandate.

Support for a Jewish state/homeland (Zionism) increased after the depth of the Holocaust’s

atrocities were revealed. The United Nations decided to divide Palestine into a Jewish state and a

Palestinian state with Jerusalem as an international city. The Palestinians were very upset with

the partition plan, since they made up the majority of the population. The country of Israel was

founded in 1948 as a response to the Holocaust in addition to the Diaspora of the Hebrew people

throughout history. The creation of the state of Israel, in turn, led to the rise of nationalism and

conflicts in the Middle East, beginning with an immediate attack by the Palestinians. Israel

defeated the Palestinians and retained control of their land. The Israelis and the Palestinians

fought brief wars over the disputed territory in 1956, 1967, and 1973. With its victory in the first

war (1948-1949), the Israelis gained half of the land inhabited by the Palestinians. Egypt

acquired the Gaza Strip, and Jordan took over the West Bank.

Arab nationalism was further evident in the Suez Crisis of 1956. Egyptian President Gamal

Nasser sent troops to take the Suez Canal, which had been built by British investors using

Egyptian labor. Nasser was upset that the British did not provide him with financial support in

the construction of the Aswan Dam and wanted to rid Egypt of foreign influence. Great Britain

wanted to retake the canal and convinced Israel to send in troops, while collaborating with the

French to provide air support. Egypt was defeated, but the United States and the Soviet Union

forced Great Britain, France, and Israel to give up the land they had captured and return the canal

to Egypt.

In 1964, the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) came into being in order to promote the

creation of a Palestinian state. Yasir Arafat became its leader. Guerrilla groups soon began to

gain power within the PLO and claimed that they had to use military force in order to create a

Palestinian state. In 1967, Nasser and other Arab leaders prepared for war against Israel. Israel,

however, made the first move and attacked Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iran, winning the Sinai

Peninsula, the West Bank, Golan Heights, and Jerusalem in the Six Day War. The Yom Kippur

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-4.6

War occurred in 1973 when the Arabs attacked Israel. A cease-fire was signed several weeks

later. The first major peace agreement in the region, the Camp David Accords, was signed by

Egypt and Israel in 1979. Egypt recognized Israel as a country and received the Sinai Peninsula

from Israel. Many Arabs, however, were upset with the peace agreement, and a group of Muslim

radicals assassinated Egyptian president Anwar Sadat. Palestinians launched the intifada in 1987,

which consisted of demonstrations and attacks against Israeli troops. In 1993, progress was made

with the Oslo Peace Accords. Israel agreed to give the Palestinians self-rule in the West Bank

and Gaza Strip, starting with Jericho. However, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin was

assassinated by a Jewish extremist and a lasting peace in the area remains elusive to this day.

The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights was also developed as a result of the major

atrocities of WWII. The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights set human rights

standards for all nations, listing specific rights that every human should have. World

organizations, such as Amnesty International, have worked to increase global awareness of

human rights violations. Increasingly, issues of human rights are difficult to enforce. In a direct

response to the Holocaust, the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights defined genocide,

yet it is troublesome for worldwide organizations to determine what role they can or should take

in mediating in the affairs of a sovereign nation, even one that seems to be in violation of basic

human rights.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the dates of any of the events during the Holocaust or the names of

the Nazi leaders who were tried at Nuremberg or their specific punishments. They also do not

need to know the dates or the specific military details of the Arab-Israeli Wars. They also do not

need to know any of the specific rights listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Compare the locations of places, the conditions at places, and the connections between

places.

Identify and explain the relationships among multiple causes and multiple effects.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Analyze

Differentiate

Organize

Attribute

Or any verb from the Apply, Understand or Remember cognitive process dimensions.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-5.1

Standard 7-5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of international developments

during the Cold War era.

Enduring Understanding:

Events during the Cold War affected the world politically, socially, and economically. To

understand the significance of the Cold War, the student will . . .

7-5.1 Compare the political and economic ideologies of the United States and the Soviet Union

during the Cold War.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge – 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

In 5th grade, students learned about the cause and course of the Cold War and its impact on the

United States (5-5.1 and 5-5.2).

In 8th grade, students will learn about the impact of the Cold War on South Carolina in

comparison to its impact on the nation as a whole (8-7.1). In high school in World History,

students will learn about communism and democratic ideals in the emergence of movements for

national self-rule or sovereignty in Africa and Asia and about the impact of the Cold War on

developing and newly independent countries (MWH-8.1 and MWH-8.3). In United States

History and the Constitution, students will learn about the impact of the Cold War on national

security and individual freedom (USHC-7.5).

It is essential for students to know:

The political and economic ideologies of the United States and the Soviet Union were in direct

contrast and competition with one another, which led to the beginning and escalation of the Cold

War. Politically, the United States had a limited government in the form of a representative

democracy or constitutional government, while the Soviet Union had an unlimited government in

the form of a communist state. Economically, the United States had a capitalist economy while

the Soviet Union had a socialist economy. All of these political and economic ideas should have

been introduced to the students in previous indicators (7-1.4, 7-2.1, 7-2.5, and 7-4.4). These

political and economic ideologies are polar opposites, and they served as the source of tension

that initiated the Cold War immediately at the end of World War II in 1945. Even before the war

was officially over, tensions had begun to develop amongst the Big Three Allied leaders,

Franklin Roosevelt of the United States, Winston Churchill of Great Britain, and Joseph Stalin of

the Soviet Union, as they began discussions of the post-war world. Roosevelt and Churchill,

representing constitutional or limited governments, wanted lands freed from control of the Axis

Powers to be granted self-rule with elections and the establishment of constitutional governments

with capitalist systems; Stalin, however, wanted these lands to have the option of becoming

communist with socialist systems. Stalin did promise that he would allow elections in the lands

in Eastern Europe that the Soviet Union had freed and occupied during the war. After the war,

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-5.1

he broke this promise and set up communist governments in these lands. At the end of the war,

this competition over political and economic ideologies led to a complete split between the two

sides when deciding what to do with Germany. Since the Soviets had invaded Germany from the

east, the USSR therefore occupied a large section or “occupation zone” of eastern Germany at

the end of the war. Likewise, Great Britain, the United States, and France each occupied a zone

in the remainder of Germany as they had invaded from the west. After Germany surrendered,

the two sides for the Cold War were set: those in support of democratic-style governments with

capitalist economies and those in support of communist-style governments with socialist

economies. Each side demanded its style be imposed on Germany and the UN conference on the

matter [prearranged at Yalta] agreed on a division into two countries. By 1949 the American,

British, and French occupation zones in the western part of Germany joined together to form the

democratically governed nation of the Federal Republic of Germany, informally known as West

Germany. Eastern Germany, the Russian sector, had a communist government and became the

German Democratic Republic, commonly referred to as East Germany. Berlin, the former

capital, was likewise partitioned, although it was located deep in East Germany. Therefore, the

competiton between the two ideologies represented in the division of Germany became representative of

the political and economic sides taken in the Cold War: capitalistic-democratic vs. socialist-communist.

This ideological competition became the basis for the escalating tensions of the Cold War as

countries lined up and rallied behind the superpower standard-bearers of each philosophy, the

USA and the USSR.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the names of the lands the Soviet Union freed or occupied at the

end of the war. They also do not need to know the dates of any of the discussions or events

concerning the beginnings of these political and economic tensions.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Evaluate multiple points of view or biases and attribute the perspectives to the influences

of individual experiences, societal values, and cultural traditions.

Cite specific textual evidence to support the analysis of primary and secondary sources.

Assessment guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

Exemplify

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-5.1

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-5.2

Standard 7-5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of international developments

during the Cold War era.

Enduring Understanding:

Events during the Cold War affected the world politically, socially, and economically. To

understand the significance of the Cold War, the student will . . .

7-5.2 Summarize the impact of the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the North Atlantic

Treaty Organization (NATO), the United Nations, and the Warsaw Pact on the course of the

Cold War.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge - 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

In 5th grade, students learned about the cause and course of the Cold War and its impact on the

United States (5-5.1 and 5-5.2).

In 8th grade, students will learn about the impact of the Cold War on South Carolina in

comparison to its impact on the nation as a whole (8-7.1). In high school in World History,

students will learn about communism and democratic ideals in the emergence of movements for

national self-rule or sovereignty in Africa and Asia and about the impact of the Cold War on

developing and newly independent countries (MWH-8.1 and MWH-8.3). In United States

History and the Constitution, students will learn about the impact of the Cold War on national

security and individual freedom (USHC-7.5).

It is essential for students to know:

At the end of World War II, there were tensions that existed as a result of major differences in

political and economic ideologies between the United States and other western nations and the

Soviet Union. These tensions escalated into the competitions and struggles of the Cold War (7-

5.1). At the end of the war, The Soviet Union wanted to spread communism, while the United

States wanted to contain the spread of communism and promote democracy. Because the United

States was justifiably concerned about the spread of communism throughout Eastern Europe,

President Harry Truman instituted a foreign policy based on the containment of communism by

giving economic assistance to countries so they would not become communist. Called the

Truman Doctrine, the strategy was first utilized to return economic stability and success to the

region, thereby preventing communist supporters from offering communism as a viable

economic alternative. An infusion of 400 million US dollars in assistance to countries in Europe

proved to be very helpful. Countries in Western Europe countries also needed economic

assistance after the war. The Marshall Plan provided the region with 12.5 billion dollars in

reconstruction funds from Congress. Therefore the Marshall Plan was instrumental in helping to

revive Western Europe after WWII while preventing the spread of communism in the area.

Because the League of Nations had failed to prevent another world war, it was replaced in 1945

with the United Nations (UN). The purpose of the UN was the same as the League of Nations,

which was to serve as an international organization to try to prevent future wars and settle

conflicts globally. The UN did differ from the League in few major ways, however. One major

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-5.2

difference was that the UN would have the ability to use military force if necessary, and another

major difference was that the United States joined the United Nations. The UN became

instrumental in getting involved in some of the issues of the Cold War such as the division of

Germany into two nations (7-5.1) and the Korean Conflict (7-5.4).

The largest problem of the Cold War was its constant potential to instantaneously turn “hot” in a

showdown between the 2 superpowers that had the great probability of using atomic/nuclear

weapons with the capability of world-wide destruction. The first of these “showdowns” occurred

in Berlin beginning in 1948. The partitioned German capital city became a political “hot spot”

after the Soviets blocked access into West Berlin, the sector of the city occupied by Americans,

British, and French, in order to drive Western influences from the city. The three Western Allies

responded by airlifting supplies and food to the people of West Berlin for almost 11 months. The

Soviets were then forced to lift the blockade. After the experience of the Berlin Blockade and the

tension and success of the Berlin Airlift the United States decided it needed to protect itself and

other democratic nations. In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten western European nations

formed a military alliance called the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Soviet

Union was threatened by the creation of NATO, and consequently built its own military alliance,

the Warsaw Pact, which included Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania,

and Albania.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the specific dates of the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the

Berlin Airlift, NATO, or the Warsaw Pact. They also do not need to know the amount of money

that was provided by the Truman Doctrine or the Marshall Plan or which specific countries

received this money. They also do not need to know the names of all of the countries involved in

NATO or the Warsaw Pact.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Identify and explain the relationships among multiple causes and multiple effects.

Explain change and continuity over time and across cultures.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

Exemplify

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-5.2

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-5.3

Standard 7-5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of international developments

during the Cold War era.

Enduring Understanding:

Events during the Cold War affected the world politically, socially, and economically. To

understand the significance of the Cold War, the student will . . .

7-5.3 Explain the spread of communism in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, and Latin America,

including the ideas of the satellite state containment, and the domino theory.

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge – 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

In 5th grade, students learned about the cause and course of the Cold War and its impact on the

United States (5-5.1 and 5-5.2).

In 8th grade, students will learn about the impact of the Cold War on South Carolina in

comparison to its impact on the nation as a whole (8-7.1). In high school in World History,

students will learn about communism and democratic ideals in the emergence of movements for

national self-rule or sovereignty in Africa and Asia and about the impact of the Cold War on

developing and newly independent countries (MWH-8.1 and MWH-8.3). In United States

History and the Constitution, students will learn about the impact of the Cold War on national

security and individual freedom (USHC-7.5).

It is essential for students to know:

At the end of World War II, The Soviet Union wanted to spread communism, while the United

States wanted to contain the spread of communism and promote democracy. Because the United

States was justifiably concerned about the spread of communism throughout Eastern Europe,

President Harry Truman instituted a foreign policy based on the containment of communism by

giving economic assistance to countries so they would not become communist. Called the

Truman Doctrine, the strategy was first utilized to return economic stability and success to the

region, thereby preventing communist supporters from offering communism as a viable

economic alternative (7-5.2). Meanwhile, the spread of communism continued in the nations of

Eastern Europe that the Soviet Union had freed from German control at the end of World War II,

and the Soviet Union established communist governments and refused to grant elections in

Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Albania, and Hungary. These nations

became “satellite” nations of the USSR as they were clustered around the Soviet Union and their

political and economic policies orbited within Soviet influence and control. Truman’s policy of

containment in Eastern Europe was therefore directed at making sure other nations did not

become satellite states.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-5.3

The Soviet Union then began trying to spread its influence of communism in Asia, Africa, and

Latin America, often looking in areas where revolutions were already taking place or where

revolution was very likely. As revolutionaries began looking for assistance, the Soviet Union

would offer help in the form of economics and/or military support in return for cooperation in

establishing communist governments in their nations. The Soviet Union also tried to spread

communism through political means by sending representatives to nations in these regions to

discuss and explain the benefits and successes of communism and would allow visiting delegates

from interested nations to come to the Soviet Union to examine the successes of their political

and economic system.

In Asia, China was the first big victory for the Soviet Union. The Chinese Civil War, which had

begun World War II, continued throughout WWII. During the civil war, the noncommunist

Nationalists and the Communists were forced to fight the Japanese together, however, both

groups were also focused on vying for political power within China. The Communists, led by

Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung), used guerilla warfare against the Japanese while the Nationalists,

led by Chiang Kai-shek, had a large army and controlled most of southwestern China. After the

Japanese surrendered, ending WWII, the civil war in China between the Nationalists and

Communists resumed (1946), ending three years later with a Communist victory. The

Communists took over China in 1949, renaming it the Peoples Republic of China with Mao

Zedong as its leader. Communism also spread to Korea. In Korea, a situation similar to what

happened in Germany occurred at the end of World War II. As a consequence of surrendering at

the end of the war, Japan had to give up all of its colonies. Korea, being a Japanese colony since

the Sino-Japanese and Russo Japanese Wars in 1894-1895 and 1904-1905 respectively, therefore

gained independence. In the continual competition over political and economic ideologies, the

Soviet Union supported the development of communism in Korea while the United States

supported the development of a democracy. The United States’ policy of involvement became

known as the “domino theory.” The idea was that if one nation fell to communism, then others,

like dominos, around the country would also become communist. The idea of containment

therefore spread from Europe to Asia as the United States tried to stop the spread of communism

in order to try to avoid the domino effect. In order to avoid civil war in Korea over political and

economic ideology Korea was divided into two parts: the Democratic People’s Republic of

Korea (commonly referred to as North Korea) as a communist nation and the Republic of Korea

(commonly referred to as South Korea) as a democratic nation. This would serve as the main

cause of the Korean War (7.5.4). In Vietnam, the spread of communism caused similar scenareos. After

World War II, Vietnam sought to gain independence from the imperial rule of France. The

Soviet Union again sent support to revolutionaries in Vietnam while the United States backed

democratic leaders. This struggle would lead to the Vietnam War (7-5.4). Other nations in Asia

such as Laos and Cambodia also were influenced by the spread of communism and therefore

changed their political system following World War II. The US fear of all Asian countries

falling to communism like dominos, however, did not occur.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-5.3

In Africa, nations that had been under imperial rule since the 1800s saw World War II as

justification for standing up to unfair governments and took this opportunity to begin demanding

independence from their European rulers. During these revolutions, the Soviet Union again

provided support in nations that would cooperate with establishing communist governments, and

once again the United States would do the same in order to try to contain the spread of

communism and help foster democratic governments (7-6.2). The Soviet Union gave military

support to Angola and Mozambique as well as to the African National Congress in South Africa.

The Soviet Union also offered educational scholarships to young Africans, especially in English

and Portuguese colonies, in hopes of persuading the youth of Africa to adopt communist ideas.

Other nations such as Guinea, Egypt, Congo, Uganda, Ethiopia, Benin, and Somalia also

received Soviet military or diplomatic aid. The United States, as well as democratic nations of

Europe, tried to prevent the spread of communism into these governments in Africa, continuing

the idea of containment and preventing the domino effect, by providing military and economic

aid.

In Latin America, Cuba was the first nation to establish a communist government under the

leadership of Fidel Castro. Castro, with the aid of the Soviet Union, took over the government of

Cuba in 1959. Tensions between the United States, the Soviet Union, and Cuba almost led to

war in the 1960s with the Cuban Missile Crisis (7-5.4). Castro, with the aid of the Soviet Union,

then began trying to spread communism in Latin America in the 1970s and 1980s, and the

United States tried to prevent this. For example, in El Salvador, troops supported by Castro and

the Soviet Union fought troops backed by the United States. In Nicaragua, rebels known as

Sandinistas overthrew the government and got aid from Castro and the Soviet Union. The

United States then helped a group known as the “Contras,” from the Spanish word against, in

their struggle against the Sandinistas.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the dates of all of these events, but instead should have an overall

understanding of how they developed following World War II and how the struggle between the

communism and containment spread worldwide. They also do not need to know the names of all

of the nations or leaders involved.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Identify and explain the relationships among multiple causes and multiple effects.

Explain change and continuity over time and across cultures.

Evaluate multiple points of view or biases and attribute the perspectives to the influences

of individual experiences, societal values, and cultural traditions.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Understand

Interpret

Exemplify

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-5.3

Classify

Summarize

Infer

Compare

Explain

Or any verb from the Remember cognitive process dimension.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-5.4

Standard 7-5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of international developments

during the Cold War era.

Enduring Understanding:

Events during the Cold War affected the world politically, socially, and economically. To

understand the significance of the Cold War, the student will . . .

7-5.4 Analyze the political and technological competition between the Soviet Union and the

United States for global influence, including the Korean Conflict, the Berlin Wall, the Vietnam

War, the Cuban missile crisis, the “space race,” and the threat of nuclear annihilation.

Taxonomy Level: Analyze/ Conceptual Knowledge – 4/B

Previous/future knowledge:

In 5th grade, students learned about the cause and course of the Cold War and its impact on the

United States (5-5.1 and 5-5.2).

In 8th grade, students will learn about the impact of the Cold War on South Carolina in

comparison to its impact on the nation as a whole (8-7.1). In high school in World History,

students will learn about communism and democratic ideals in the emergence of movements for

national self-rule or sovereignty in Africa and Asia and about the impact of the Cold War on

developing and newly independent countries (MWH-8.1 and MWH-8.3). In United States

History and the Constitution, students will learn about the impact of the Cold War on national

security and individual freedom and about the development of the war in Vietnam and its impact on

American government and politics (USHC-7.5 and USHC-8.3).

It is essential for students to know:

The Korean Conflict was a portion of the Cold War in which the ideological tensions became

“hot” and fighting ensued, without troops from the Soviet Union and the United States ever

actually fighting each other. After the Japanese were driven out of Korea as a result of their

defeat in World War II, the peninsula was divided into two parts at the 38th parallel. Each part of

the country was backed by a different Cold War leadership: the northern region was communist

and the southern region was not (7-5.3). The Korean War began in 1950 as North Korea invaded

South Korea with the hope of uniting the peninsula under one communist regime. The United

States, led by President Harry Truman, and the United Nations sent troops to support South

Korea. The Soviets assisted the North Koreans by giving them money and weapons, and the

Communist Chinese soon joined in sending troops to help North Korea, as well. The war quickly

reached a costly impasse and the stalemate ended in 1953, when a cease-fire agreement was

signed. Korea remained divided at the 38th parallel, which was made into a demilitarized zone.

The Soviet Union came to dominate Eastern Europe during the Cold War, splitting Europe into

two regions: a democratic Western Europe and a communist Eastern Europe (7-5.1). Prime

Minister Winston Churchill aptly coined the phrase “behind the iron curtain” to describe the area

of the continent under communist control (7-5.1). The difference in living conditions between

East and West Berlin, East and West Germany and eastern and western Europe was marked, due

to the lack of many consumer goods, and subsequently led to a much lower standard of living in

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-5.4

the communist sectors. This inequity between East and West caused many defections from the

East to the West, especially in Berlin (deep behind the iron curtain). Consequently, the Berlin

Wall was built in 1961 by the Communists in East Berlin in order to prevent people from going

to West Berlin. The Berlin Wall symbolized the iron curtain that separated the democratic West

from the communist East.

The Vietnam War was another “hot” extension of the Cold War. The French wanted to reassert

their control over Indochina after World War II ended, however, the Vietnamese nationalist

movement, led by communist leader Ho Chi Minh, was very strong. The United States gave the

French money and weapons to fight the Communists because the superpower was afraid that if

one Asian country fell to communism, the rest of the region would also become communist. This

idea, known as the domino theory, became the basis of U.S. foreign policy (7-5.3). However, Ho

Chi Minh and his nationalist Communist forces were able to defeat the French in 1954 and

achieve independence. After the French were defeated, Vietnam was split into two regions at the

17th parallel: the northern part became communist under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh, and the

southern part was established as non-communist and led by Ngo Dinh Diem. The Diem regime,

however, was corrupt. Ho Chi Minh, who was very popular in the north, invaded the south in

order to unify Vietnam under communist rule. Focused on preventing a communist-takeover, the

United States, began sending weapons and advisors to South Vietnam in the 1950s. In the mid-

1960s under President Lyndon Johnson, American troops were sent to help the South

Vietnamese. Not only did the Americans fight the North Vietnamese, they also fought against the

Vietcong, who were communists in South Vietnam. The Communists were very successful in

their use of guerilla warfare against the United States. The South Vietnamese government did not

have the support of the people, and the United States could not achieve a victory. The United

States withdrew, and the Communists took over South Vietnam and unified the country under

communist rule in 1975.

The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) was another significant Cold War event with the potential of

evolving into a nuclear showdown. Fidel Castro had become the communist leader of Cuba in

1959 (7-5.3). When an American spy plane flew over Cuba and took pictures of Soviet missiles

being assembled on the island, President John F. Kennedy feared the Soviets would use them to

attack the United States. Kennedy decided to implement a naval blockade around Cuba and told

the Soviets that they would have to remove the missiles. After almost two weeks of intense

maneuvering and negotiations at the United Nations and between the US and USSR while the

world fearfully anticipated nuclear annihilation, both sides made concessions. A direct military

confrontation was avoided as the Soviet missiles were removed from Cuba, and in return the

United States removed nuclear missiles that it had in Turkey seen by the USSR as a threat.

The United States and the Soviet Union also competed for global power through their space and

arms races. With the formation of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, both countries strengthened their

militaries, increased their armaments, and focused on the buildup of nuclear weapons. Both

countries developed hydrogen bombs in the 1950s. The Soviets were the first to launch a satellite

(Sputnik) into space in 1957. In response to the Soviet lead, the United States strengthened its

math and science educational programs and created the National Aeronautics and Space

Administration (NASA), soon launching its own satellite into space. The Americans were the

first to land on the moon in 1969. With the formation of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, both

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-5.4

countries strengthened their militaries, increased their armaments, and focused on the buildup of

nuclear weapons which created the threat of nuclear annihilation. Both countries developed

hydrogen bombs in the 1950s. Both the space and arms races continued to escalate until the Cold

War’s end in 1989.

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the dates of each event but should have an understanding of the

order in which events took place. They also do not need to know the details of the battles that

took place during the Korean and Vietnam Wars.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Identify and explain the relationships among multiple causes and multiple effects.

Explain change and continuity over time and across cultures.

Evaluate multiple points of view or biases and attribute the perspectives to the influences

of individual experiences, societal values, and cultural traditions.

Cite specific textual evidence to support the analysis of primary and secondary sources.

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Analyze

Differentiate

Organize

Attribute

Or any verb from the Apply, Understand or Remember cognitive process dimensions.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-5.5

Standard 7-5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of international developments

during the Cold War era.

Enduring Understanding:

Events during the Cold War affected the world politically, socially, and economically. To

understand the significance of the Cold War, the student will . . .

7-5.5 Analyze the events that contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union and other

communist governments in Europe, including the growth of resistance movements in Eastern

Europe, the policies of Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan, and the failures of communist

economic systems.

Taxonomy Level: Analyze/ Conceptual Knowledge – 4/B

Previous/future knowledge:

In 5th grade, students learned about the cause and course of the Cold War and its impact on the

United States (5-5.1 and 5-5.2).

In 8th grade, students will learn about the impact of the Cold War on South Carolina in

comparison to its impact on the nation as a whole (8-7.1). In high school in World History,

students will learn about communism and democratic ideals in the emergence of movements for

national self-rule or sovereignty in Africa and Asia and about the impact of the Cold War on

developing and newly independent countries (MWH-8.1 and MWH-8.3). In United States

History and the Constitution, students will learn about the impact of the Cold War on national

security and individual freedom (USHC-7.5).

It is essential for students to know:

In Eastern Europe, the growth of resistance movements led to the trend of communist

governments falling out of power in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In these nations, the desire

for political rights led many citizens of these nations to begin protesting against their

governments. The economic systems of many of these nations were ineffective as production,

income, and standard of living levels continued to decline. As citizens of these nations

witnessed the political freedoms as well as comparatively better economic success of democratic

governments in Europe, these protests intensified and defections from these nations increased.

In Poland, the labor union Solidarity opposed communist rule and demanded government

recognition of their group. Led by Lech Walesa, Solidarity gained popularity through strikes and

sit-ins as the government continued to struggle with economic issues. When free elections were

held in April 1989, Lech Walesa was elected president. In Hungary, citizens began fleeing to

Western Europe in 1989 after cutting a hole in a fence that separated communist Hungary from

the democratic West. As the hole continued to get larger, more and more citizens of Hungary

and other communist nations such as East Germany defected. As resistance movements and

protests increased in Hungary, the communist party was overthrown in October 1989. In East

Germany, demands for reforms and protest increased along with the demand for political and

economic rights. In November 1989, the Berlin Wall began to be torn down, removing a symbol

of division between communism and capitalism. After the collapse of the Wall, West and East

Germany were reunited into one democratic Germany. As the dividing line between East Berlin

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-5.5

and West Berlin, the collapse of the Wall in November 1989 reflected the changes happening

throughout the Communist East in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

The Soviet Union was the primary Communist nation throughout the Cold War (7-5.1). Changes

in Eastern Europe were connected to the economic collapse of the Soviet Union as the USSR

was unable to bear the continued expense of stopping resistance movements and began having

additional challenges to face. The continued Cold War expenses of supporting the spread of

communism and the space and arms races led the Soviet Union to serious economic problems.

The decreasing levels of production, income, standards of living within the Soviet Union also

made the failures of the communist economic system more apparent. Citizens within the Soviet

Union began demanding changes and also wanted more political rights. Following Mikhail

Gorbachev’s election as leader of the USSR in 1982, the Soviet Union moved away from its

totalitarian style. Gorbachev encouraged economic and social reforms, including perestroika

(economic restructuring) that allowed for more decision-making and private ownership of

businesses and glasnost (a policy of openness) that allowed for more public participation and

greater individual rights. Gorbachev also began working with United States President Ronald

Reagan, symbolizing a decline in tensions of the Cold War. Reagan began his term as president

in a defensive and hostile manner towards the Soviet Union, and the Cold War sentiments

remained high. In 1983 Reagan referred to the Soviet Union as “the evil empire.” The Strategic

Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by Reagan that same year. SDI continued the Cold War

trend of competition and animosity between the superpowers as the program was designed to use

ground and space systems to protect the United States from a possible nuclear attack. In 1985,

Reagan met Gorbachev in person and their relationship began to change for the better. In 1987,

Gorbachev and Reagan signed a treaty to begin reducing their numbers of nuclear weapons to

put an end to the arms race and to show greater cooperation between the two nations. That same

year Gorbachev introduced a policy called democratization, which was the process of creating a

government elected by the people. The granting of greater freedom to those within Soviet

borders led various nationalist groups to call for independence which, in turn, led to rising ethnic

tensions. In March 1990, Lithuania declared independence from the Soviet Union. Gorbachev

ordered an economic blockade of the country in an attempt to force it to rejoin the USSR, but he

eventually had to use force in early 1991 when the blockade proved ineffective. These

challenges led to the official end of the Soviet Union in December of 1991 (7-6.1).

It is not essential for students to know:

Students do not need to know the names of all Russian republics. They also do not need to know

the dates of all events but should have an understanding of the order in which events took place.

The study of Eastern Europe should be focused on analysis of the trends that led to these

resistance movements such as desires for rights and changes to failing economic systems.

Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century:

Identify and explain the relationships among multiple causes and multiple effects.

Explain change and continuity over time and across cultures.

Evaluate multiple points of view or biases and attribute the perspectives to the influences

of individual experiences, societal values, and cultural traditions.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-5.5

Assessment Guidelines:

Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to:

Analyze

Differentiate

Organize

Attribute

Or any verb from the Apply, Understand or Remember cognitive process dimensions.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-6.1

Standard 7-6: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the significant political,

economic, geographic, scientific, technological, and cultural changes as well as the

advancements that have taken place throughout the world from the fall of the Berlin Wall in

1989 to the present day.

Enduring Understanding:

Since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the world’s attention no longer focuses on the tension

between superpowers. Although problems rooted in the Middle East have captured the world’s

attention more consistently than the majority of current issues, other concerns have moved to the

forefront as well. To understand the modern world, the student will . . .

7-6.1 Summarize the political and social impact of the collapse/dissolution of the Soviet Union

and subsequent changes to European borders, including those of Russia and the Independent

Republics, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia; the breakup of Yugoslavia; the reunification of

Germany; and the birth of the European Union (EU).

Taxonomy Level: Understand/ Conceptual Knowledge - 2/B

Previous/future knowledge:

In 5th grade, students learned about the changes in world politics that followed the collapse of the

Soviet Union and the end of Soviet domination of Eastern Europe (5-6.1).

In high school in World History, students will learn about the impact that the collapse of the

Soviet Union and communist governments in Eastern Europe had on the people and geopolitics

of Eurasia, including the balkanization of Yugoslavia, the reunification of Germany, and the

creation of the new republics in Central Asia (MWH-8.6). In United States History and the

Constitution, students will learn about America’s role in the changing world, including the

dissolution of the Soviet Union and the expansion of the European Union (USHC-8.6).

It is essential for students to know:

In December of 1991, the Soviet Union officially collapsed and was dissolved (7-5.5). The

process intensified in June 1991, frustrated by the economic difficulties and lack of political

rights, the people of the USSR turned to Boris Yeltsin as the first directly elected president of the

Russian Federation (Gorbachev remained president of the Soviet Union at this time). In August

1991, conservative communists unsuccessfully attempted to overthrow Gorbachev’s government

and remove him from power. However, following this unsuccessful coup, the Soviet party lost

power. All fifteen Soviet republics declared independence, and these fifteen agreed to form the

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) as a loose federation of former Soviet states. The

formation of the CIS was the official end of the Soviet Union, and Gorbachev officially resigned

as president of the Soviet Union on December 25, 1991.

As president, Yeltsin adopted a plan known as “shock therapy” which was an abrupt and

immediate shift to free market (capitalism) economics. By 1993, the plan led to outrageous

inflation rates and hardship. Yeltsin faced further difficulties as Chechnya fought to gain

independence from Russia, having declared independence in 1991. A cease-fire was declared in

1996, but war continued even as Vladimir Putin took over as Russian president in 1999.

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-6.1

In Czechoslovakia, the collapse of communism due to economic and political problems led to the

eventual split of the nation into two nations: the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993. Like

other communist nations in Eastern Europe, Czechoslovakia faced challenges and demands for

reform from its citizens due to a lack of economic success and frustration over lack of political

rights under the communist regime. Czechoslovakia was a two-state federation made up of

Czechs and Slovaks, and following WWII, the country had become a communist nation as a

result of Soviet influence and pressure. In this two-state federation, political problems arose due

to the lack of cooperation and agreement between these two states. This issue of shared powers

was suppressed under the communist rule from 1968 to 1989, but when communist rule

collapsed, the political problems immediately surfaced. The political differences between the

Czechs and Slovaks appeared in the first democratic elections in 1990, and the separation in

political agendas became more apparent after the 1992 elections. Along with the lack of

compatibility between the two states politically, Czech and Slovak nationalism became stronger

and more evident once a democratic system was put in place. In order to address the increasing

divisions, the government peacefully negotiated the dissolution of the federation. In 1993, the

federation was dissolved, and the nations of the Czech Republic and Slovakia were established.

In Yugoslavia, political differences, economic concerns, and nationalism also led to the breakup

of Yugoslavia. The breakup of Yugoslavia, however, was not accomplished peacefully.

Politically, Yugoslavia had a federal system with six republics: Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia,

Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, and Montenegro. In 1945, Yugoslavia fell under communist

rule and President Marshal Tito’s government was able to continually suppress democratic

reforms and the desire for individual rights that arose from political factions within the republics.

With Tito’s death in 1980, the stability of the communist government decreased, and challenges

from the different republics began to increase. Economically, the republics, like other

communist nations in Eastern Europe, sought reforms due to the lack of prosperity. Finally,

nationalism amongst the different republics began to grow stronger. Inspired by the communist

revolutions of 1989 in places such as Poland and Hungary (7-5.5), the differing nationalist

groups within Yugoslavia began increasing protests and demands for change. In 1990 the

Yugolsav Communist Party split along ethnic lines, and throughout that year political reforms

such as instituting elections were introduced in some republics such as Slovenia and Croatia.

These reforms were often met with violent attacks from police and military support from the

communist regime. Violence increased throughout the 1990s as republics began demanding

independence. Slovenia was the first republic to successfully secede from Yugoslavia, and

Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Macedonia followed. In Serbia and Montenegro, “ethnic

cleansing” led to mass atrocities as local militias within the republics came into conflict with

nationalist ethnic minorities. One example of this ethnic cleansing occurred under the Serbian

leadership of Slobodan Milosevic. After the arrest of Milosevic in 2001, Serbia and Montenegro

were recognized by the United Nations once again, and in 2003 they were organized as a twostate

federation. In 2006, Serbia and Montenegro split into two independent nations. Ethnic

violence also occurred in the former Serbian province of Kosovo as Albanians and Serbs fought

for the land.

In East Germany, like other communist nations in Europe, discontent arose over lack of

economic prosperity and political rights. Demands and protests intensified in the 1980s, and the

revolutions in 1989 in Poland and Hungary served as models of change. In November 1989, the

GRADE 7

Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present

Indicator 7-6.1

Berlin Wall was torn down, removing a symbol of division between communism and capitalism.

After the collapse of the Wall, West and East Germany were reunited into one democratic

Germany (7-5.5). Thus independence and, to a greater degree, reunification were difficult to

achieve nationalistically, governmentally, and economically.

The birth of the European Union (EU) was based on the former European Economic Community

(EEC) that had developed during the Cold War. The EEC, officially created in 1957, sought to

strengthen the economies of democratic nations in Europe by allowing for beneficial trade by