Vocabulary Words for Quiz #19 Weather Instruments
- anemometer – a tool used to measure wind speed in miles per hour.
- wind vane – a tool used to measure the direction from which the wind is blowing; sometimes referred to as a wind sock.
- thermometer – a tool used to measure air temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and Celsius.
- sling psychrometer – a two-thermometer instrument also referred to as a wet-dry bulb used to measure relative humidity (the amount of water vapor in the air).
- barometer – a tool used to measure air pressure in inches of mercury or millibars.
- rain gauge – a tool used to measure the amount of precipitation in inches or centimeters.
- meteorologist – studies weather and uses information from radar, satellites, computers and other instruments to make weather maps and provide forecasts.
- isobars – lines drawn on a weather map that connect points having equal atmospheric pressure; also indicate the location of high and low pressure areas and can show wind speed.
- isotherms – lines drawn on a weather map that connect points having equal temperature.
- station models – indicates weather conditions at a specific location, using a combination of symbols on a map.
Vocabulary Words for Quiz #18 Air Masses, Fronts, Storms
1. air mass - huge bodies of air that form over water or land in tropical or polar regions.
2. fronts – form at the boundaries between air masses; there are four different types.
3. warm front – when a warm air mass collides and rides over a cold air mass; produces long periods of precipitation and warmer temperatures.
4. cold front – when a cold air mass collides and slides under a warm air mass; may produce thunderstorms and sometimes tornadoes and cooler temperatures.
5. stationary front – when neither a cold air mass nor a warm air mass moves at a frontal boundary; may produce long period of precipitation.
6. occluded front – when a cold air mass pushes into a warm air mass that is behind a cool air mass, the warm air mass is pushed up above the cooler air masses; may produce long periods of precipitation.
7. high pressure system – usually signal more fair weather with winds circulating around the system in a clockwise direction.
8. low pressure system – often result in rainy and/or stormy weather conditions with winds circulating in a counterclockwise direction.
9. tornado – a rapidly whirling, funnel-shaped cloud that extends down from a storm cloud.
10. hurricane – a low pressure tropical storm that forms over warm ocean water.
Vocabulary Words for Quiz #17 Clouds
1. cumulus – puffy clouds with flat bottoms; when they are white they signal fair weather; when darker they may signal rain or thunderstorms; found at medium or low elevation. Water Cycle
2. cirrus – wispy, feathery clouds made mostly of ice crystals that form at high levels
3. stratus – clouds that form in layers
4. nimbus – means “rain” when added to a cloud name
5. fog – clouds that form when condensation occurs at or near the ground
6. cumulonimbus – clouds also called thunderhead, part of thunderstorm condition
7. altocumulus – medium-level clouds, puffy clouds with flat bottom
8. altostratus – medium-level clouds, clouds that form in layers
9. weather - a condition of the Earth’s atmosphere at any time.
Vocabulary Words for Quiz #16 : Water Cycle
precipitation – any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth’s surface.
evaporation – the process by which water molecules in liquid water escape into the air as water vapor.
transpiration – the process by which water is lost through a plant’s leaves.
condensation – the process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water. It is part of the water cycle.
run-off – water that falls onto land surfaces always attempts to move back toward sea level; can be surface water flow or groundwater flow; part of the water cycle.
surface-water flow- water that stays on the surface instead of sinking into the ground.
groundwater flow – water that sinks into the ground.
ionosphere - a layer of electrically charged particles within the mesosphere and thermosphere.
ultraviolet radiation - a type of energy that comes from the sun; ozone absorbs most of this energy that enters the atmosphere.
greenhouse effect - natural heating that occurs when certain gases in Earth’s atmosphere, such as methane, CO 2 and water vapor, trap heat.
Layer of the Atmosphere
Vocabulary Words for Quiz #15 : Layer of the Atmosphere
1. atmosphere – the layer of gases that surrounds the planet and makes conditions on Earth suitable for living things.
2. troposphere – layer of the Earth’s atmosphere that is closest to the ground; is where clouds and weather occur.
3. stratosphere – layer of the Earth’s atmosphere above the troposphere; the ozone layer is contained here.
4. mesosphere – middle layer of the Earth’s atmosphere; the coldest layer and the layer where meteors are found.
5. thermosphere – layer of the Earth’s atmosphere above the mesosphere; very hot temperatures in this layer.
6. exosphere – outer layer of the thermosphere; extending outward into space; satellites orbit here.
7. ozone – a form of oxygen found in the stratosphere, molecule made of three atoms of oxygen
8. air pressure – the force exerted by the gases pushing on an object; greatest near the surface of the Earth.
9. ozone hole – a seasonal reduction in ozone over Antarctica caused by CFC’s in the atmosphere.
10. chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) – chemical compounds used in some refrigerators, air conditioners, and aerosol sprays,
and in the production of some foam packaging that can enter the atmosphere and destroy ozone.